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{adj: achromatinic} (of substance of a cell nucleus) not readily colored by stains
<-> chromatinic



{adj: bedless} without a bed
"the cell was bedless"
<-> bedded

{adj: catenulate, chainlike} having a chainlike form
"catenulate bacterial cell colonies"

{adj: chromatinic} (of substance of a cell nucleus) readily colored by stains
<-> achromatinic

{adj: eccrine} (of exocrine glands) producing a clear aqueous secretion without releasing part of the secreting cell; important in regulating body temperature
<-> apocrine

{adj: stainable} capable of being stained (especially of cells and cell parts)

{adj: vacuolate, vacuolated} formed into or containing one or more vacuoles or small membrane-bound cavities within a cell

{adj: voltaic, galvanic} pertaining to or producing electric current by chemical action
"a galvanic cell"
"a voltaic (or galvanic) couple"

{n: B cell, B lymphocyte} a lymphocyte derived from bone marrow that provides humoral immunity; it recognizes free antigen molecules in solution and matures into plasma cells that secrete immunoglobulin (antibodies) that inactivate the antigens

{n: Chlorophyta, division Chlorophyta} large division of chiefly freshwater eukaryotic algae that possess chlorophyll a and b, store food as starch, and cellulose cell walls; classes Chlorophyceae, Ulvophyceae, and Charophyceae; obviously ancestral to land plants

{n: Hooke, Robert Hooke} English scientist who formulated the law of elasticity and proposed a wave theory of light and formulated a theory of planetary motion and proposed the inverse square law of gravitational attraction and discovered the cellular structure of cork and introduced the term `cell' into biology and invented a balance spring for watches (1635-1703)

{n: Kerr cell} optical device consisting of a transparent cell with two electrodes between two polarizing media; passes light only if the two planes of polarization are parallel; used as a high-speed shutter or to modulate a laser beam

{n: Kupffer's cell} specialized cells in the liver that destroy bacteria and foreign proteins and worn-out blood cells

{n: Purkinje cell} a large densely branching neuron that is the characteristic cell of the cerebellar cortex

{n: Schwann, Theodor Schwann} German physiologist and histologist who in 1838 and 1839 identified the cell as the basic structure of plant and animal tissue (1810-1882)

{n: Wilmut, Ian Wilmut} English geneticist who succeeded in cloning a sheep from a cell from an adult ewe (born in 1944)

{n: acanthocyte} an abnormal red blood cell that has thorny projections of protoplasm

{n: acantholysis} a breakdown of a cell layer in the epidermis (as in pemphigus)

{n: acanthosis} an abnormal but benign thickening of the prickle-cell layer of the skin (as in psoriasis)

{n: achromatin} the part of a cell nucleus that is relatively uncolored by stains or dyes

{n: agonist} (biochemistry) a drug that can combine with a receptor on a cell to produce a physiological reaction

{n: al-Tawhid, Al Tawhid, Divine Unity} an Islamic terrorist cell that originated in Jordan but operates in Germany; goal is to attack Europe and Russia with chemical weapons

{n: alveolus, air sac, air cell} a tiny sac for holding air in the lungs; formed by the terminal dilation of tiny air passageways

{n: amitosis} the direct method of cell division characterized by simple division of the nucleus without formation of chromosomes

{n: anode} the negatively charged terminal of a voltaic cell or storage battery that supplies current
<-> cathode

{n: apposition} (biology) growth in the thickness of a cell wall by the deposit of successive layers of material

{n: axon, axone} long nerve fiber that conducts away from the cell body of the neuron

{n: beta cell} a cell that produces insulin in the isles of Langerhans in the pancreas

{n: beta receptor, beta-adrenergic receptor, beta-adrenoceptor} receptors postulated to exist on nerve cell membranes of the sympathetic nervous system in order to explain the specificity of certain agents that affect only some sympathetic activities (such as vasodilation and increased heart beat)

{n: blastocyte} an undifferentiated embryonic cell

{n: blastomere} any cell resulting from cleavage of a fertilized egg

{n: blood cell, blood corpuscle, corpuscle} either of two types of cells (erythrocytes and leukocytes) and sometimes including platelets

{n: bone cell} a cell that is part of a bone

{n: brain cell} a nerve cell in the brain

{n: bullpen, detention cell, detention centre} a large cell where prisoners (people awaiting trial or sentence or refugees or illegal immigrants) are confined together temporarily

{n: calcium blocker, calcium-channel blocker} any of a class of drugs that block the flow of the electrolyte calcium (either in nerve cell conduction or smooth muscle contraction of the heart); has been used in the treatment of angina or arrhythmia or hypertension or migraine

{n: cambium} a formative one-cell layer of tissue between xylem and phloem in most vascular plants that is responsible for secondary growth

{n: cancer, malignant neoplastic disease} any malignant growth or tumor caused by abnormal and uncontrolled cell division; it may spread to other parts of the body through the lymphatic system or the blood stream

{n: cathode} the positively charged terminal of a voltaic cell or storage battery that supplies current
<-> anode

{n: cell division, cellular division} the process in reproduction and growth by which a cell divides to form daughter cells

{n: cell theory, cell doctrine} (biology) the theory that cells form the fundamental structural and functional units of all living organisms; proposed in 1838 by Matthias Schleiden and by Theodor Schwann

{n: cell wall} a rigid layer of polysaccharides enclosing the membrane of plant and prokaryotic cells; maintains the shape of the cell and serves as a protective barrier

{n: cell} (biology) the basic structural and functional unit of all organisms; they may exist as independent units of life (as in monads) or may form colonies or tissues as in higher plants and animals

{n: chemotaxis} movement by a cell or organism in reaction to a chemical stimulus

{n: choanocyte, collar cell} any of the flagellated cells in sponges having a collar of cytoplasm around the flagellum; they maintain a flow of water through the body

{n: chromosome} a threadlike body in the cell nucleus that carries the genes in a linear order

{n: clone, clon} a group of genetically identical cells or organisms derived from a single cell or individual by some kind of asexual reproduction

{n: cloning} a general term for the research activity that creates a copy of some biological entity (a gene or organism or cell)

{n: clostridium, clostridia} spindle-shaped bacterial cell especially one swollen at the center by an endospore

{n: coccobacillus} a bacterial cell intermediate in morphology between a coccus and a bacillus; a very short bacillus

{n: columbite-tantalite, coltan} a valuable black mineral combining niobite and tantalite; used in cell phones and computer chips

{n: correlation table} a two-way tabulation of the relations between correlates; row headings are the scores on one variable and column headings are the scores on the second variables and a cell shows how many times the score on that row was associated with the score in that column

{n: cytokinesis} organic process consisting of the division of the cytoplasm of a cell following karyokinesis bringing about the separation into two daughter cells

{n: cytophotometer} a photometer that can be used to locate and identify chemical compounds in a cell by measuring the intensity of the light that passes through stained sections of the cytoplasm

{n: cytophotometry} the study of chemical compounds inside a cell by means of a cytophotometer

{n: daughter cell} a cell formed by the division or budding of another cell
"anthrax grows by dividing into two daughter cells that are generally identical"

{n: dendrite} short fiber that conducts toward the cell body of the neuron

{n: deoxyribonucleic acid, desoxyribonucleic acid, DNA} (biochemistry) a long linear polymer found in the nucleus of a cell and formed from nucleotides and shaped like a double helix; associated with the transmission of genetic information
"DNA is the king of molecules"

{n: dungeon} a dark cell (usually underground) where prisoners can be confined

{n: electrolytic cell} a cell containing an electrolyte in which an applied voltage causes a reaction to occur that would not occur otherwise (such as the breakdown of water into hydrogen and oxygen)
<-> voltaic cell

{n: embryonic stem-cell research} biological research on stem cells derived from embryos and their use in medicine

{n: endospore} a small asexual spore that develops inside the cell of some bacteria and algae

{n: eosin, bromeosin} a red fluorescent dye resulting from the action of bromine on fluorescein; used in cosmetics and as a biological stain for studying cell structures

{n: erythroblast} a nucleated cell in bone marrow from which red blood cells develop

{n: eubacteria, eubacterium, true bacteria} a large group of bacteria having rigid cell walls; motile types have flagella

{n: exudation, transudation} the process of exuding; the slow escape of liquids from blood vessels through pores or breaks in the cell membranes

{n: fission} reproduction of some unicellular organisms by division of the cell into two more or less equal parts

{n: fuel cell} cell that produces electricity by oxidation of fuel (hydrogen and oxygen or zinc and air); for use in electric cars

{n: gametocyte} an immature animal or plant cell that develops into a gamete by meiosis

{n: ganglion} an encapsulated neural structure consisting of a collection of cell bodies or neurons

{n: grey matter, gray matter, grey substance, gray substance, substantia grisea} greyish nervous tissue containing cell bodies as well as fibers; forms the cerebral cortex consisting of unmyelinated neurons

{n: helper T cell, helper cell, CD4 T cell, CD4 cell} T cell with CD4 receptor that recognizes antigens on the surface of a virus-infected cell and secretes lymphokines that stimulate B cells and killer T cells; helper T cells are infected and killed by the AIDS virus

{n: hematocrit, haematocrit, packed cell volume} the ratio of the volume occupied by packed red blood cells to the volume of the whole blood as measured by a hematocrit

{n: hematopoeitic stem cell} blood forming stem cells in the bone marrow; T cells and B cells arise from these stem cells

{n: histone} a simple protein containing mainly basic amino acids; present in cell nuclei in association with nucleic acids

{n: holding cell} a jail in a courthouse where accused persons can be confined during a trial

{n: homunculus} a tiny fully formed individual that (according to the discredited theory of preformation) is supposed to be present in the sperm cell

{n: hydremia} blood disorder in which there is excess fluid volume compared with the cell volume of the blood

{n: hypobasidium} special cell constituting the base of the basidium in various fungi especially of the order Tremellales

{n: inclusion body, cellular inclusion, inclusion} any small intracellular body found within another (characteristic of certain diseases)
"an inclusion in the cytoplasm of the cell"

{n: intussusception} (biology) growth in the surface area of a cell by the deposit of new particles between existing particles in the cell wall

{n: killer T cell, killer cell, cytotoxic T cell, CD8 T cell, CD8 cell} T cell with CD8 receptor that recognizes antigens on the surface of a virus-infected cell and binds to the infected cell and kill it

{n: lead-acid battery, lead-acid accumulator} a battery with lead electrodes with dilute sulphuric acid as the electrolyte; each cell generates about 2 volts

{n: leukocyte, leucocyte, white blood cell, white cell, white blood corpuscle, white corpuscle, WBC} blood cells that engulf and digest bacteria and fungi; an important part of the body's defense system

{n: leukopenia, leucopenia} an abnormal lowering of the white blood cell count

{n: lignin} a complex polymer; the chief constituent of wood other than carbohydrates; binds to cellulose fibers to harden and strengthen cell walls of plants

{n: linin} an obsolete term for the network of viscous material in the cell nucleus on which the chromatin granules were thought to be suspended

{n: luteinizing hormone, LH, interstitial cell-stimulating hormone, ICSH} a gonadotropic hormone that is secreted by the anterior pituitary; stimulates ovulation in female mammals and stimulates androgen release in male mammals

{n: lymphocyte, lymph cell} an agranulocytic leukocyte that normally makes up a quarter of the white blood cell count but increases in the presence of infection

{n: lysozyme, muramidase} an enzyme found in saliva and sweat and tears that destroys the cell walls of certain bacteria

{n: megakaryocyte} a large bone marrow cell; regarded as the source of blood platelets

{n: megaloblast} abnormally large red blood cell present in pernicious anemia and folic acid deficiency

{n: megalocyte, macrocyte} abnormally large red blood cell (associated with pernicious anemia)

{n: melanocyte} a cell in the basal layer of the epidermis that produces melanin under the control of the melanocyte-stimulating hormone

{n: microcyte} an abnormally small red blood cell (less than 5 microns in diameter)

{n: microgliacyte} a cell of the microglia that may become phagocytic and collect waste products of nerve tissue

{n: musca volitans, muscae volitantes, floater, spots} spots before the eyes caused by opaque cell fragments in the vitreous humor and lens

{n: muscle cell, muscle fiber, muscle fibre} an elongated contractile cell that forms the muscles of the body

{n: mycoplasma} any of a group of small parasitic bacteria that lack a cell walls and can survive without oxygen; can cause pneumonia and urinary tract infection

{n: myenteric plexus, plexus myentericus} a plexus of unmyelinated fibers and postganglionic autonomic cell bodies in the muscular coat of the esophagus and stomach and intestines

{n: nickel-iron battery, nickel-iron accumulator} a storage battery having a nickel oxide cathode and an iron anode with an electrolyte of potassium hydroxide; each cell gives about 1.2 volts

{n: nucleolus, nucleole} a small round body of protein in a cell nucleus; such organelles contain RNA and are involved in protein synthesis

{n: nucleus} any histologically identifiable mass of neural cell bodies in the brain or spinal cord

{n: organelle, cell organelle, cell organ} a specialized part of a cell; analogous to an organ
"the first organelle to be identified was the nucleus"

{n: osteoblast, bone-forming cell} a cell from which bone develops

{n: osteoclast} cell that functions in the breakdown and resorption of bone tissue

{n: osteocyte} mature bone cell

{n: ovule} a small body that contains the female germ cell of a plant; develops into a seed after fertilization

{n: passive transport} transport of a substance across a cell membrane by diffusion; expenditure of energy is not required

{n: plasma cell, plasmacyte} a cell that develops from a B lymphocyte in reaction to a specific antigen; found in bone marrow and sometimes in the blood

{n: polar body} a small cell containing little cytoplasm that is produced along with the oocyte and later discarded

{n: polyphone, polyphonic letter} a letter that has two or more pronunciations
"`c' is a polyphone because it is pronounced like `k' in `car' but like `s' in `cell'"

{n: preformation, theory of preformation} a theory (popular in the 18th century and now discredited) that an individual develops by simple enlargement of a tiny fully formed organism (a homunculus) that exists in the germ cell

{n: red blood cell, RBC, erythrocyte} a mature blood cell that contains hemoglobin to carry oxygen to the bodily tissues; a biconcave disc that has no nucleus

{n: replication} (genetics) the process whereby DNA makes a copy of itself before cell division

{n: respiratory quotient} the ratio of the volume of carbon dioxide expired to the volume of oxygen consumed by an organism or cell in a given period of time

{n: resting potential} the potential difference between the two sides of the membrane of a nerve cell when the cell is not conducting an impulse

{n: reticulocyte} an immature red blood cell containing a network of filaments or granules

{n: ribonucleic acid, RNA} (biochemistry) a long linear polymer of nucleotides found in the nucleus but mainly in the cytoplasm of a cell where it is associated with microsomes; it transmits genetic information from DNA to the cytoplasm and controls certain chemical processes in the cell
"ribonucleic acid is the genetic material of some viruses"

{n: ribosome} an organelle in the cytoplasm of a living cell; they attach to mRNA and move down it one codon at a time and then stop until tRNA brings the required amino acid; when it reaches a stop codon it falls apart and releases the completed protein molecule for use by the cell
"the ribosome is the site of protein synthesis"

{n: root hair} thin hairlike outgrowth of an epidermal cell just behind the tip; absorbs nutrients from the soil

{n: scallop, crenation, crenature, crenel, crenelle} one of a series of rounded projections (or the notches between them) formed by curves along an edge (as the edge of a leaf or piece of cloth or the margin of a shell or a shriveled red blood cell observed in a hypertonic solution etc.)

{n: semipermeable membrane} a membrane (as a cell membrane) that allows some molecule to pass through but not others

{n: sickle cell} an abnormal red blood cell that has a crescent shape and an abnormal form of hemoglobin

{n: sickle-cell anemia, sickle-cell anaemia, sickle-cell disease, crescent-cell anemia, crescent-cell anaemia, drepanocytic anemia, drepanocytic anaemia} a congenital form of anemia occurring mostly in blacks; characterized by abnormal blood cells having a crescent shape

{n: siderocyte} an abnormal red blood cell containing granules of iron not bound in hemoglobin

{n: sleeper cell} a cell of sleepers
"an al-Qaeda sleeper cell may have used Arizona as its base"

{n: specialization, specialisation, differentiation} (biology) the structural adaptation of some body part for a particular function
"cell differentiation in the developing embryo"

{n: sperm, sperm cell, spermatozoon, spermatozoan} the male reproductive cell; the male gamete
"a sperm is mostly a nucleus surrounded by little other cellular material"

{n: spherocyte} an abnormal spherical red blood cell

{n: spindle} (biology) tiny fibers that are seen in cell division; the fibers radiate from two poles and meet at the equator in the middle
"chromosomes are distributed by spindles in mitosis and meiosis"

{n: stem cell} an undifferentiated cell whose daughter cells may differentiate into other cell types (such as blood cells)

{n: storage cell, secondary cell} a cell that can be recharged

{n: syncytium} a mass of cytoplasm containing several nuclei and enclosed in a membrane but no internal cell boundaries (as in muscle fibers)

{n: target cell} an abnormal red blood cell with the appearance of a dark ring surrounding a dark center; associated with anemia

{n: target cell} any cell that has a specific receptor for an antigen or antibody or hormone or drug, or is the focus of contact by a virus or phagocyte or nerve fiber etc.

{n: taste cell, gustatory cell} an epithelial cell in a taste bud that activates sensory fibers of the facial nerve or the glossopharyngeal nerve or the vagus nerve

{n: transduction} (genetics) the process of transfering genetic material from one cell to another by a plasmid or bacteriophage

{n: transfer RNA, tRNA, acceptor RNA, soluble RNA} RNA molecules present in the cell (in at least 20 varieties, each variety capable of combining with a specific amino acid) that attach the correct amino acid to the protein chain that is being synthesized at the ribosome of the cell (according to directions coded in the mRNA)

{n: transformation} (genetics) modification of a cell or bacterium by the uptake and incorporation of exogenous DNA

{n: transport} an exchange of molecules (and their kinetic energy and momentum) across the boundary between adjacent layers of a fluid or across cell membranes

{n: tumor virus} a cell-free filtrate held to be a virus responsible for a specific neoplasm

{n: turgor} (biology) the normal rigid state of fullness of a cell or blood vessel or capillary resulting from pressure of the contents against the wall or membrane

{n: virino} (microbiology) a hypothetical infectious particle thought to be the cause of scrapie and other degenerative diseases of the central nervous system; consists of nucleic acid in a protective coat of host cell proteins

{n: vitamin Bc, vitamin M, folate, folic acid, folacin, pteroylglutamic acid, pteroylmonoglutamic acid} a B vitamin that is essential for cell growth and reproduction

{n: vitamin P, bioflavinoid, citrin} a vitamin that maintains the resistance of cell and capillary walls to permeation

{n: voltaic cell, galvanic cell, primary cell} an electric cell that generates an electromotive force by an irreversible conversion of chemical to electrical energy; cannot be recharged
<-> electrolytic cell

{v: cell phone} call up by using a cellular phone
"If the train is late, I will cell phone you"

{v: replicate, copy} biology: reproduce or make an exact copy of
"replicate the cell"
"copy the genetic information"

{v: transform} change (a bacterial cell) into a genetically distinct cell by the introduction of DNA from another cell of the same or closely related species


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