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B vitamin

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{n: B-complex vitamin, B complex, vitamin B complex, vitamin B, B vitamin, B} originally thought to be a single vitamin but now separated into several B vitamins

{n: Funk, Casimir Funk} United States biochemist (born in Poland) who showed that several diseases were caused by dietary deficiencies and who coined the term `vitamin' for the chemicals involved (1884-1967)

{n: Haworth, Sir Walter Norman Haworth} English biochemist who was a pioneer in research on carbohydrates; when he synthesized vitamin C he became the first person to synthesize a vitamin artificially (1883-1950)

{n: Szent-Gyorgyi, Albert Szent-Gyorgyi, Albert von Szent-Gyorgyi} United States biochemist (born in Hungary) who was the first to isolate vitamin C (1893-1986)

{n: acerola, barbados cherry, surinam cherry, West Indian cherry} acid red or yellow cherry-like fruit of a tropical American shrub very rich in vitamin C

{n: alpha-tocopheral} a potent form of vitamin E obtained from germ oils or by synthesis

{n: beriberi} avitaminosis caused by lack of thiamine (vitamin B1)

{n: biotin, vitamin H} a B vitamin that aids in body growth

{n: choline} a B-complex vitamin that is a constituent of lecithin; essential in the metabolism of fat

{n: coenzyme} a small molecule (not a protein but sometimes a vitamin) essential for the activity of some enzymes

{n: deficiency disease} any disease caused by a lack of an essential nutrient (as a vitamin or mineral)

{n: ergosterol} a plant sterol that is converted into vitamin D by ultraviolet radiation

{n: hypocalcemia, hypocalcaemia} abnormally low level of calcium in the blood; associated with hypoparathyroidism or kidney malfunction or vitamin D deficiency
<-> hypercalcemia

{n: hypothrombinemia} a low level of prothrombin (factor II) in the circulating blood; results in long clotting time and poor clot formation and sometimes excessive bleeding; can result from vitamin K deficiency

{n: inositol} an optically inactive alcohol that is a component of the vitamin B complex

{n: intrinsic factor} a substance produced by the mucosa of the stomach and intestines that is essential for the absorption of vitamin B12
"lack of intrinsic factor can result in pernicious anemia"

{n: liver} large and complicated reddish-brown glandular organ located in the upper right portion of the abdominal cavity; secretes bile and functions in metabolism of protein and carbohydrate and fat; synthesizes substances involved in the clotting of the blood; synthesizes vitamin A; detoxifies poisonous substances and breaks down worn-out erythrocytes

{n: megavitamin therapy} therapy based on a theory that taking very large doses of vitamins will prevent or cure physical or psychological disorders

{n: niacin, nicotinic acid} a B vitamin essential for the normal function of the nervous system and the gastrointestinal tract

{n: nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide, NAD} a coenzyme present in most living cells and derived from the B vitamin nicotinic acid; serves as a reductant in various metabolic processes

{n: nyctalopia, night blindness, moon blindness} inability to see clearly in dim light; due to a deficiency of vitamin A or to a retinal disorder

{n: osteomalacia} abnormal softening of bones caused by deficiencies of phosphorus or calcium or vitamin D

{n: pantothenic acid, pantothen} a vitamin of the vitamin B complex that performs an important role in the oxidation of fats and carbohydrates and certain amino acids; occurs in many foods

{n: pernicious anemia, pernicious anaemia, malignant anemia, malignant anaemia} a chronic progressive anemia of older adults; thought to result from a lack of intrinsic factor (a substance secreted by the stomach that is responsible for the absorption of vitamin B12)

{n: rickets, rachitis} childhood disease caused by deficiency of vitamin D and sunlight associated with impaired metabolism of calcium and phosphorus

{n: sale} the state of being purchasable; offered or exhibited for selling
"you'll find vitamin C for sale at most pharmacies"
"the new line of cars will soon be on sale"

{n: scurvy, scorbutus} a condition caused by deficiency of ascorbic acid (vitamin C)

{n: shark oil, shark-liver oil} a fatty yellow to brown oil obtained from the livers of sharks; used for dressing leather and as a source of vitamin A

{n: soupfin shark, soupfin, soup-fin, Galeorhinus zyopterus} Pacific shark valued for its fins (used by Chinese in soup) and liver (rich in vitamin A)

{n: tetany, tetanilla, intermittent tetanus, intermittent cramp, apyretic tetanus} clinical neurological syndrome characterized by muscular twitching and cramps and (when severe) seizures; associated with calcium deficiency (hypoparathyroidism) or vitamin D deficiency or alkalosis

{n: vitamin A, antiophthalmic factor, axerophthol, A} any of several fat-soluble vitamins essential for normal vision; prevents night blindness or inflammation or dryness of the eyes

{n: vitamin A1, retinol} an unsaturated alcohol that occurs in marine fish-liver oils and is synthesized biologically from carotene

{n: vitamin B1, thiamine, thiamin, aneurin, antiberiberi factor} a B vitamin that prevents beriberi; maintains appetite and growth

{n: vitamin B12, cobalamin, cyanocobalamin, antipernicious anemia factor} a B vitamin that is used to treat pernicious anemia

{n: vitamin B2, vitamin G, riboflavin, lactoflavin, ovoflavin, hepatoflavin} a B vitamin that prevents skin lesions and weight loss

{n: vitamin B6, pyridoxine, pyridoxal, pyridoxamine, adermin} a B vitamin that is essential for metabolism of amino acids and starch

{n: vitamin Bc, vitamin M, folate, folic acid, folacin, pteroylglutamic acid, pteroylmonoglutamic acid} a B vitamin that is essential for cell growth and reproduction

{n: vitamin E, tocopherol, E} a fat-soluble vitamin that is essential for normal reproduction; an important antioxidant that neutralizes free radicals in the body

{n: vitamin K, naphthoquinone, antihemorrhagic factor} a fat-soluble vitamin that helps in the clotting of blood

{n: vitamin P, bioflavinoid, citrin} a vitamin that maintains the resistance of cell and capillary walls to permeation

{n: xerophthalmia, xerophthalmus, xeroma, conjunctivitis arida} abnormal dryness of the conjunctiva and cornea of the eyes; may be due to a systemic deficiency of vitamin A

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