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Old Testament

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{n: Aaron} (Old Testament) elder brother of Moses and first high priest of the Israelites; created the golden calf

{n: Abel} (Old Testament) Cain and Abel were the first children of Adam and Eve born after the Fall of Man; Abel was killed by Cain

{n: Abraham, Ibrahim} the first of the Old Testament patriarchs and the father of Isaac; according to Genesis, God promised to give Abraham's family (the Hebrews) the land of Canaan (the Promised Land); God tested Abraham by asking him to sacrifice his son
"Judaism, Christianity, and Islam each has a special claim on Abraham"

{n: Adam} (Old Testament) in Judeo-Christian mythology; the first man and the husband of Eve and the progenitor of the human race

{n: Ahab} according to the Old Testament he was a pagan king of Israel and husband of Jezebel (9th century BC)

{n: Amos, Book of Amos} an Old Testament book telling Amos's prophecies

{n: Apocrypha} 14 books of the Old Testament included in the Vulgate (except for II Esdras) but omitted in Jewish and Protestant versions of the Bible; eastern Christian churches (except the Coptic church) accept all these books as canonical; the Russian Orthodox church accepts these texts as divinely inspired but does not grant them the same status

{n: Bathsheba} (Old Testament) the wife of Uriah and later the wife of King David; Solomon was her son by David (circa 10th century BC)

{n: Belshazzar} (Old Testament) Babylonian general and son of Nebuchadnezzar II; according to the Old Testament he was warned of his doom by divine handwriting on the wall that was interpreted by Daniel (6th century BC)

{n: Benjamin} (Old Testament) the youngest and best-loved son of Jacob and Rachel and one of the twelve forebears of the tribes of Israel

{n: Cain} (Old Testament) Cain and Abel were the first children of Adam and Eve born after the Fall of Man; Cain killed Abel out of jealousy and was exiled by God

{n: Christianity, Christian religion} a monotheistic system of beliefs and practices based on the Old Testament and the teachings of Jesus as embodied in the New Testament and emphasizing the role of Jesus as savior

{n: Daniel, Book of Daniel, Book of the Prophet Daniel} an Old Testament book that tells of the apocalyptic visions and the experiences of Daniel in the court of Nebuchadnezzar

{n: Daniel} (Old Testament) a youth who was taken into the court of Nebuchadnezzar and given divine protection when thrown into a den of lions (6th century BC)

{n: David} (Old Testament) the 2nd king of the Israelites; as a young shepherd he fought Goliath (a giant Philistine warrior) and killed him by hitting him in the head with a stone flung from a sling; he united Israel with Jerusalem as its capital; many of the Psalms are attributed to David (circa 1000-962 BC)

{n: Dead Sea scrolls} (Old Testament) a collection of written scrolls (containing nearly all of the Old Testament) found in a cave near the Dead Sea in the late 1940s
"the Dead Sea Scrolls provide information about Judaism and the Bible around the time of Jesus"

{n: Delilah} (Old Testament) the Philistine mistress of Samson who betrayed him by cutting off his hair and so deprived him of his strength

{n: Deuteronomy, Book of Deuteronomy} the fifth book of the Old Testament; contains a second statement of Mosaic law

{n: Dimash, Damascus, capital of Syria} an ancient city (widely regarded as the world's oldest) and present capital and largest city of Syria; according to the New Testament, the Apostle Paul (then known as Saul) underwent a dramatic conversion on the road to Damascus

{n: Ecclesiastes, Book of Ecclesiastes} an Old Testament book consisting of reflections on the vanity of human life; is traditionally attributed to Solomon but probably was written about 250 BC

{n: Egyptian Empire, Egypt} an ancient empire west of Israel; centered on the Nile River and ruled by a Pharaoh; figured in many events described in the Old Testament

{n: Elijah} a Hebrew prophet in the Old Testament who opposed the worship of idols; he was persecuted for rebuking Ahab and Jezebel (king and queen of Israel); he was taken up to heaven in a chariot of fire (circa 9th century BC)

{n: Esau} (Old Testament) the eldest son of Isaac who would have inherited the covenant that God made with Abraham and that Abraham passed on to Isaac; he traded his birthright to his twin brother Jacob for a mess of pottage

{n: Esther, Book of Esther} an Old Testament book telling of a beautiful Jewess who became queen of Persia and saved her people from massacre

{n: Esther} (Old Testament) a beautiful Jewess chosen by the king of Persia to be his queen; she stopped a plot to massacre all the Jews in Persia (an event celebrated by Jews as the feast of Purim)

{n: Eve} (Old Testament) Adam's wife in Judeo-Christian mythology: the first woman and mother of the human race; God created Eve from Adam's rib and placed Adam and Eve in the Garden of Eden

{n: Exodus, Book of Exodus} the second book of the Old Testament: tells of the departure of the Israelites out of slavery in Egypt led by Moses; God gave them the Ten Commandments and the rest of Mosaic law on Mount Sinai during the Exodus

{n: Ezekiel, Ezechiel, Book of Ezekiel} an Old Testament book containing Ezekiel's prophecies of the downfall of Jerusalem and Judah and their subsequent restoration

{n: Ezra, Book of Ezra} an Old Testament book telling of a rabbi's efforts in the 5th century BC to reconstitute Jewish law and worship in Jerusalem after the Babylonian Captivity

{n: Genesis, Book of Genesis} the first book of the Old Testament: tells of creation; Adam and Eve; the Fall of Man; Cain and Abel; Noah and the flood; God's covenant with Abraham; Abraham and Isaac; Jacob and Esau; Joseph and his brothers

{n: Goliath} (Old Testament) a giant Philistine warrior who was slain by David with a slingshot

{n: Gomorrah, Gomorrha} (Old Testament) an ancient city near the Dead Sea that (along with Sodom) was destroyed by God for the vice and depravity of its inhabitants

{n: Habakkuk, Habacuc, Book of Habakkuk} an Old Testament book telling Habakkuk's prophecies

{n: Haggai, Aggeus, Book of Haggai} an Old Testament book telling the prophecies of Haggai which are concerned mainly with rebuilding the temples after the Babylonian Captivity

{n: Haman} (Old Testament) the minister of the Persian emperor who hated the Jews and was hanged for plotting to massacre them

{n: Ham} (Old Testament) son of Noah

{n: Hezekiah, Ezekias} (Old Testament) king of Judah who abolished idolatry (715-687 BC)

{n: Hosea, Book of Hosea} an Old Testament book telling Hosea's prophecies

{n: I Chronicles, 1 Chronicles} the first of two Old Testament books telling the history of Judah and Israel until the return from the Babylonian Captivity in 536 BC

{n: I Kings, 1 Kings} the first of two Old Testament books telling the histories of the kings of Judah and Israel

{n: I Samuel, 1 Samuel} the first of two books in the Old Testament that tell of Saul and David

{n: II Chronicles, 2 Chronicles} the second of two Old Testament books telling the history of Judah and Israel until the return from the Babylonian Captivity in 536 BC

{n: II Kings, 2 Kings} the second of two Old Testament books telling the histories of the kings of Judah and Israel

{n: II Samuel, 2 Samuel} the second of two books of the Old Testament that tell of Saul and David

{n: Isaac} (Old Testament) the second patriarch; son of Abraham and Sarah who was offered by Abraham as a sacrifice to God; father of Jacob and Esau

{n: Isaiah, Book of Isaiah} an Old Testament book consisting of Isaiah's prophecies

{n: Isaiah} (Old Testament) the first of the major Hebrew prophets (8th century BC)

{n: Ishmael} (Old Testament) the son of Abraham who was cast out after the birth of Isaac; considered the forebear of 12 Arabian tribes

{n: Issachar} (Old Testament) a son of Jacob and a forebear of one of the tribes of Israel

{n: Jacob} (Old Testament) son of Isaac; brother of Esau; father of the twelve patriarchs of Israel; Jacob wrestled with God and forced God to bless him, so God gave Jacob the new name of Israel (meaning `one who has been strong against God')

{n: Japheth} (Old Testament) son of Noah

{n: Jeremiah, Book of Jeremiah} a book in the Old Testament containing the oracles of the prophet Jeremiah

{n: Jeremiah} (Old Testament) an Israelite prophet who is remembered for his angry lamentations (jeremiads) about the wickedness of his people (circa 626-587 BC)

{n: Jericho} a village in Jordan near the north end of the Dead Sea; in the Old Testament it was the first place taken by the Israelites under Joshua as they entered the Promised Land

{n: Jeroboam, Jeroboam I} (Old Testament) first king of the northern kingdom of Israel who led Israel into sin (10th century BC)

{n: Jezebel} wife of Ahab who was king of Israel; according to the Old Testament she was a cruel immoral queen who fostered the worship of Baal and tried to kill Elijah and other prophets of Israel (9th century BC)

{n: Job, Book of Job} a book in the Old Testament containing Job's pleas to God about his afflictions and God's reply

{n: Job} a Jewish hero in the Old Testament who maintained his faith in God in spite of afflictions that tested him

{n: Joel, Book of Joel} an Old Testament book telling Joel's prophecies

{n: Jonah, Book of Jonah} a book in the Old Testament that tells the story of Jonah and the whale

{n: Jonah} (Old Testament) Jonah did not wish to become a prophet so God caused a great storm to throw him overboard from a ship; he was saved by being swallowed by a whale that vomited him out onto dry land

{n: Joseph} (Old Testament) the 11th son of Jacob and one of the 12 patriarchs of Israel; Jacob gave Joseph a coat of many colors, which made his brothers jealous and they sold him into slavery in Egypt

{n: Joshua, Josue, Book of Joshua} a book in the Old Testament describing how Joshua led the Israelites into Canaan (the Promised Land) after the death of Moses

{n: Joshua} (Old Testament) Moses' successor who led the Israelites into the Promised Land; best remembered for his destruction of Jericho

{n: Judah} (Old Testament) the fourth son of Jacob who was forebear of one of the tribes of Israel; one of his descendants was to be the Messiah

{n: Judges, Book of Judges} a book of the Old Testament that tells the history of Israel under the leaders known as judges

{n: Lamentations, Book of Lamentations} an Old Testament book lamenting the desolation of Judah after the destruction of Jerusalem in 586 BC; traditionally attributed to the prophet Jeremiah

{n: Leviticus, Book of Leviticus} the third book of the Old Testament; contains Levitical law and ritual precedents

{n: Lot's wife} (Old Testament) when God destroyed Sodom and Gomorrah, Lot and his family were told to flee without looking back; Lot's wife was disobedient and was immediately changed into a pillar of salt

{n: Lot} (Old Testament) nephew of Abraham; God destroyed Sodom and Gomorrah but chose to spare Lot and his family who were told to flee without looking back at the destruction

{n: Malachi, Malachias, Book of Malachi} an Old Testament book containing the prophecies of Malachi

{n: Marcionism} the Christian heresy of the 2nd and 3rd centuries that rejected the Old Testament and denied the incarnation of God in Jesus as a human

{n: Methuselah} (Old Testament) a patriarch (grandfather of Noah) who is said to have lived 969 years

{n: Micah, Micheas, Book of Micah} an Old Testament book telling the prophecies of Micah foretelling the destruction of Jerusalem

{n: Michael} (Old Testament) the guardian archangel of the Jews

{n: Mosaic law, Law of Moses} the laws (beginning with the Ten Commandments) that God gave to the Israelites through Moses; it includes many rules of religious observance given in the first five books of the Old Testament (in Judaism these books are called the Torah)

{n: Moses} (Old Testament) the Hebrew prophet who led the Israelites from Egypt across the Red sea on a journey known as the Exodus; Moses received the Ten Commandments from God on Mount Sinai

{n: Mount Carmel} a mountain range in northwestern Israel near the Mediterranean coast
"according to the Old Testament, Elijah defeated the priests of Baal at Mount Carmel"

{n: Nahum, Book of Nahum} an Old Testament book telling Nahum's prophecy of the fall of Nineveh

{n: Naomi, Noemi} the mother-in-law of Ruth whose story is told in the Book of Ruth in the Old Testament

{n: Nebuchadnezzar, Nebuchadnezzar II, Nebuchadrezzar, Nebuchadrezzar II} (Old Testament) king of Chaldea who captured and destroyed Jerusalem and exiled the Israelites to Babylonia (630?-562 BC)

{n: Nehemiah, Book of Nehemiah} an Old Testament book telling how a Jewish official at the court of Artaxerxes I in 444 BC became a leader in rebuilding Jerusalem after the Babylonian Captivity

{n: Nimrod} (Old Testament) a famous hunter

{n: Numbers, Book of Numbers} the fourth book of the Old Testament; contains a record of the number of Israelites who followed Moses out of Egypt

{n: Obadiah, Abdias, Book of Obadiah} an Old Testament book telling Obadiah's prophecies; the shortest book in the Christian Bible

{n: Old Testament} the collection of books comprising the sacred scripture of the Hebrews and recording their history as the chosen people; the first half of the Christian Bible

{n: Paralipomenon} (Old Testament) an obsolete name for the Old Testament books of I Chronicles and II Chronicles which were regarded as supplementary to Kings

{n: Proverbs, Book of Proverbs} an Old Testament book consisting of proverbs from various Israeli sages (including Solomon)

{n: Psalms, Book of Psalms} an Old Testament book consisting of a collection of 150 Psalms

{n: Psalm} one of the 150 lyrical poems and prayers that comprise the Book of Psalms in the Old Testament; said to have been written by David

{n: Rachel} (Old Testament) the second wife of Jacob and mother of Joseph and Benjamin

{n: Rebecca, Rebekah} (Old Testament) wife of Isaac and mother of Jacob and Esau

{n: Ruth, Book of Ruth} a book of the Old Testament that tells the story of Ruth who was not an Israelite but who married an Israelite and who stayed with her mother-in-law Naomi after her husband died

{n: Ruth} the great-grandmother of king David whose story is told in the Book of Ruth in the Old Testament

{n: Samson} (Old Testament) a judge of Israel who performed herculean feats of strength against the Philistines until he was betrayed to them by his mistress Delilah

{n: Samuel} (Old Testament) Hebrew prophet and judge who anointed Saul as king

{n: Sarah} (Old Testament) the wife of Abraham and mother of Isaac

{n: Saul} (Old Testament) the first king of the Israelites who defended Israel against many enemies (especially the Philistines)

{n: Septuagint} the oldest Greek version of the Old Testament; said to have been translated from the Hebrew by Jewish scholars at the request of Ptolemy II

{n: Seth} (Old Testament) third son of Adam and Eve; given by God in place of the murdered Abel

{n: Shem} (Old Testament) eldest son of Noah

{n: Simeon} (Old Testament) the 2nd son of Jacob and one of the 12 patriarchs of Israel

{n: Sodom} (Old Testament) an ancient city near the Dead Sea that (along with Gomorrah) was destroyed by God for the wickedness of its inhabitants

{n: Solomon} (Old Testament) son of David and king of Israel noted for his wisdom (10th century BC)

{n: Song of Songs, Song of Solomon, Canticle of Canticles, Canticles} an Old Testament book consisting of a collection of love poems traditionally attributed to Solomon but actually written much later

{n: Uriah} (Old Testament) the husband of Bathsheba and a soldier who was sent to die in battle so that King David could marry his wife (circa 10th century BC)

{n: Virgin Birth, Nativity} the theological doctrine that Jesus Christ had no human father; Christians believe that Jesus's birth fulfilled Old Testament prophecies and was attended by miracles; the Nativity is celebrated at Christmas

{n: Yahweh, YHWH, Yahwe, Yahveh, YHVH, Yahve, Wahvey, Jahvey, Jahweh, Jehovah, JHVH} a name for the God of the Old Testament as transliterated from the Hebrew consonants YHVH

{n: Zechariah, Zacharias, Book of Zachariah} an Old Testament book telling the prophecies of Zechariah which are concerned mainly with the renewal of Israel after the Babylonian Captivity

{n: Zephaniah, Sophonias, Book of Zephaniah} an Old Testament book telling the prophecies of Zephaniah which are concerned mainly with the approaching judgment by God upon the sinners of Judah

{n: antitype} a person or thing represented or foreshadowed by a type or symbol; especially a figure in the Old Testament having a counterpart in the New Testament

{n: burning bush} (Old Testament) the bush that burned without being consumed and from which God spoke to Moses

{n: fire and brimstone} (Old Testament) God's means of destroying sinners
"his sermons were full of fire and brimstone"

{n: golden calf} (Old Testament) an idol made by Aaron for the Israelites to worship; destroyed by Moses; it is now used to refer to anything worshipped undeservedly

{n: laver} (Old Testament) large basin used by a priest in an ancient Jewish temple to perform ritual ablutions

{n: leviathan} monstrous sea creature symbolizing evil in the Old Testament

{n: miraculous food, manna, manna from heaven} (Old Testament) food that God gave the Israelites during the Exodus

{n: retem, raetam, juniper bush, juniper, Retama raetam, Genista raetam} desert shrub of Syria and Arabia having small white flowers; constitutes the juniper of the Old Testament; sometimes placed in genus Genista

{n: stacte} (Old Testament) one of several sweet-smelling spices used in incense


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