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{adj: amitotic} pertaining to a simple method of cell division



{adj: apocrine} (of exocrine glands) producing a secretion in which part of the secreting cell is released with the secretion
"mother's milk is one apocrine secretion"
<-> eccrine

{adj: bedless} without a bed
"the cell was bedless"
<-> bedded

{adj: cell-free} lacking cells
"cell-free systems"
"a cell-free homogenate of the thyroid"

{adj: ciliary, ciliate, cilial} of or relating to cilia projecting from the surface of a cell

{adj: cytokinetic} of or relating to the division of the cytoplasm of a cell following the division of the nucleus

{adj: cytolytic} of or relating to cytolysis, the dissolution or destruction of a cell

{adj: diploid} of a cell or organism having two sets of chromosomes or twice the haploid number
"diploid somatic cells"
<-> polyploid, haploid

{adj: eccrine} (of exocrine glands) producing a clear aqueous secretion without releasing part of the secreting cell; important in regulating body temperature
<-> apocrine

{adj: karyokinetic} of or relating to the division of the nucleus of a cell during mitosis or meiosis

{adj: lignified, woody} made hard like wood as the result of the deposition of lignin in the cell walls

{adj: nuclear} of or relating to or constituting the nucleus of a cell
"nuclear membrane"
"nuclear division"

{adj: polyploid} of a cell or organism having more than twice the haploid number of chromosomes
"a polyploid cell"
"a polyploid species"
<-> haploid, diploid

{adj: reversible} capable of assuming or producing either of two states
"a reversible chemical reaction"
"a reversible cell"

{adj: secretory} of or relating to or producing a secretion
" a secretory cell"

{adj: single-celled, one-celled} having a single cell (and thus not divided into cells)

{adj: triploid} of a cell or organism having three complete sets of chromosomes
"human triploid fetuses are usually spontaneously aborted"

{adj: voltaic, galvanic} pertaining to or producing electric current by chemical action
"a galvanic cell"
"a voltaic (or galvanic) couple"

{n: B cell, B lymphocyte} a lymphocyte derived from bone marrow that provides humoral immunity; it recognizes free antigen molecules in solution and matures into plasma cells that secrete immunoglobulin (antibodies) that inactivate the antigens

{n: Chlorophyta, division Chlorophyta} large division of chiefly freshwater eukaryotic algae that possess chlorophyll a and b, store food as starch, and cellulose cell walls; classes Chlorophyceae, Ulvophyceae, and Charophyceae; obviously ancestral to land plants

{n: Galvani, Luigi Galvani} Italian physiologist noted for his discovery that frogs' muscles contracted in an electric field (which led to the galvanic cell) (1737-1798)

{n: Golgi's cell, Golgi cell} a neuron in the cerebral cortex with short dendrites and with either a long axon or a short axon that ramifies in the grey matter

{n: Hooke, Robert Hooke} English scientist who formulated the law of elasticity and proposed a wave theory of light and formulated a theory of planetary motion and proposed the inverse square law of gravitational attraction and discovered the cellular structure of cork and introduced the term `cell' into biology and invented a balance spring for watches (1635-1703)

{n: Kerr cell} optical device consisting of a transparent cell with two electrodes between two polarizing media; passes light only if the two planes of polarization are parallel; used as a high-speed shutter or to modulate a laser beam

{n: Kupffer's cell} specialized cells in the liver that destroy bacteria and foreign proteins and worn-out blood cells

{n: Leclanche cell} voltaic cell that produces approximately 1.5 volts

{n: Leydig cell, Leydig's cell} a cell in the testes that secretes the hormone testosterone

{n: Oken, Lorenz Oken, Okenfuss, Lorenz Okenfuss} German naturalist whose speculations that plants and animals are made up of tiny living `infusoria' led to the cell theory (1779-1851)

{n: Purcell, Henry Purcell} English organist at Westminster Abbey and composer of many theatrical pieces (1659-1695)

{n: Purkinje cell} a large densely branching neuron that is the characteristic cell of the cerebellar cortex

{n: Schleiden, Matthias Schleiden, M. J. Schleiden} German physiologist and histologist who in 1838 formulated the cell theory (1804-1881)

{n: Schwann cell} any cell that covers the nerve fibers in the peripheral nervous system and forms the myelin sheath

{n: Schwann, Theodor Schwann} German physiologist and histologist who in 1838 and 1839 identified the cell as the basic structure of plant and animal tissue (1810-1882)

{n: Sertoli cell, Sertoli's cell} elongated cells found in the seminiferous tubules of the testis; apparently they nourish the spermatids

{n: T cell, T lymphocyte} a small lymphocyte developed in the thymus; it orchestrates the immune system's response to infected or malignant cells

{n: Weston cell, cadmium cell} a standard voltaic cell (trademark Weston)

{n: acanthocyte} an abnormal red blood cell that has thorny projections of protoplasm

{n: acantholysis} a breakdown of a cell layer in the epidermis (as in pemphigus)

{n: acanthosis} an abnormal but benign thickening of the prickle-cell layer of the skin (as in psoriasis)

{n: achromatin} the part of a cell nucleus that is relatively uncolored by stains or dyes

{n: acrosome} a process at the anterior end of a sperm cell that produces enzymes to facilitate penetration of the egg

{n: action potential} the local voltage change across the cell wall as a nerve impulse is transmitted

{n: active transport} transport of a substance (as a protein or drug) across a cell membrane against the concentration gradient; requires an expenditure of energy

{n: agonist} (biochemistry) a drug that can combine with a receptor on a cell to produce a physiological reaction

{n: al-Tawhid, Al Tawhid, Divine Unity} an Islamic terrorist cell that originated in Jordan but operates in Germany; goal is to attack Europe and Russia with chemical weapons

{n: alpha receptor, alpha-adrenergic receptor, alpha-adrenoceptor} receptors postulated to exist on nerve cell membranes of the sympathetic nervous system in order to explain the specificity of certain agents that affect only some sympathetic activities (such as vasoconstriction and relaxation of intestinal muscles and contraction of smooth muscles)

{n: alveolus, air sac, air cell} a tiny sac for holding air in the lungs; formed by the terminal dilation of tiny air passageways

{n: ameloblast} a cell from which tooth enamel develops

{n: amitosis} the direct method of cell division characterized by simple division of the nucleus without formation of chromosomes

{n: anaplasia} loss of structural differentiation within a cell or group of cells often with increased capacity for multiplication, as in a malignant tumor

{n: anode} the negatively charged terminal of a voltaic cell or storage battery that supplies current
<-> cathode

{n: apoptosis, programmed cell death, caspase-mediated cell death} a type of cell death in which the cell uses specialized cellular machinery to kill itself; a cell suicide mechanism that enables metazoans to control cell number and eliminate cells that threaten the animal's survival

{n: apposition} (biology) growth in the thickness of a cell wall by the deposit of successive layers of material

{n: aster} star-shaped structure formed in the cytoplasm of a cell having fibers like rays that surround the centrosome during mitosis

{n: autoregulation} (physiology) processes that maintain a generally constant physiological state in a cell or organism

{n: auxiliary cell} a terrorist cell responsible for logistics; usually large and less compartmentalized than other terrorist cells

{n: axon, axone} long nerve fiber that conducts away from the cell body of the neuron

{n: beta cell} a cell that produces insulin in the isles of Langerhans in the pancreas

{n: beta receptor, beta-adrenergic receptor, beta-adrenoceptor} receptors postulated to exist on nerve cell membranes of the sympathetic nervous system in order to explain the specificity of certain agents that affect only some sympathetic activities (such as vasodilation and increased heart beat)

{n: blood cell, blood corpuscle, corpuscle} either of two types of cells (erythrocytes and leukocytes) and sometimes including platelets

{n: bone cell} a cell that is part of a bone

{n: brain cell} a nerve cell in the brain

{n: bullpen, detention cell, detention centre} a large cell where prisoners (people awaiting trial or sentence or refugees or illegal immigrants) are confined together temporarily

{n: calcium blocker, calcium-channel blocker} any of a class of drugs that block the flow of the electrolyte calcium (either in nerve cell conduction or smooth muscle contraction of the heart); has been used in the treatment of angina or arrhythmia or hypertension or migraine

{n: cambium} a formative one-cell layer of tissue between xylem and phloem in most vascular plants that is responsible for secondary growth

{n: cancer cell} a cell that is part of a malignant tumor

{n: cancer, malignant neoplastic disease} any malignant growth or tumor caused by abnormal and uncontrolled cell division; it may spread to other parts of the body through the lymphatic system or the blood stream

{n: cancroid, squamous cell carcinoma} the most common form of skin cancer

{n: cathode} the positively charged terminal of a voltaic cell or storage battery that supplies current
<-> anode

{n: cell division, cellular division} the process in reproduction and growth by which a cell divides to form daughter cells

{n: cell membrane, cytomembrane, plasma membrane} a thin membrane (a double layer of lipids) enclosing the cytoplasm of a cell; proteins in the membrane control passage of ions (like sodium or potassium or calcium) in and out of the cell
"all cells have a cell membrane"

{n: cell theory, cell doctrine} (biology) the theory that cells form the fundamental structural and functional units of all living organisms; proposed in 1838 by Matthias Schleiden and by Theodor Schwann

{n: cell wall} a rigid layer of polysaccharides enclosing the membrane of plant and prokaryotic cells; maintains the shape of the cell and serves as a protective barrier

{n: cell, cadre} a small unit serving as part of or as the nucleus of a larger political movement

{n: cell, electric cell} a device that delivers an electric current as the result of a chemical reaction

{n: cell-mediated immune response} an immune response (chiefly against viral or fungal invasions or transplanted tissue) that involves T cells

{n: cellular telephone, cellular phone, cellphone, cell, mobile phone} a hand-held mobile radiotelephone for use in an area divided into small sections, each with its own short-range transmitter/receiver

{n: cell} (biology) the basic structural and functional unit of all organisms; they may exist as independent units of life (as in monads) or may form colonies or tissues as in higher plants and animals

{n: cell} any small compartment
"the cells of a honeycomb"

{n: centriole} one of a pair of small cylindrical cell organelles near the nucleus in animal cells; composed of nine triplet microtubules and form the asters during mitosis

{n: chemotaxis} movement by a cell or organism in reaction to a chemical stimulus

{n: chitin} a tough semitransparent horny substance; the principal component of the exoskeletons of arthropods and the cell walls of certain fungi

{n: choanocyte, collar cell} any of the flagellated cells in sponges having a collar of cytoplasm around the flagellum; they maintain a flow of water through the body

{n: chromatin, chromatin granule} the readily stainable substance of a cell nucleus consisting of DNA and RNA and various proteins; during mitotic division it condenses into chromosomes

{n: chromosome} a threadlike body in the cell nucleus that carries the genes in a linear order

{n: ciliate, ciliated protozoan, ciliophoran} a protozoan with a microscopic appendage extending from the surface of the cell

{n: cilium} a hairlike projection from the surface of a cell; provides locomotion in free-swimming unicellular organisms

{n: cloning} a general term for the research activity that creates a copy of some biological entity (a gene or organism or cell)

{n: clostridium, clostridia} spindle-shaped bacterial cell especially one swollen at the center by an endospore

{n: columbite-tantalite, coltan} a valuable black mineral combining niobite and tantalite; used in cell phones and computer chips

{n: columnar cell, columnar epithelial cell} an epithelial cell that is shaped like a column; some have cilia

{n: cone, cone cell, retinal cone} visual receptor cell sensitive to color

{n: cooler, tank} a cell for violent prisoners

{n: correlation table} a two-way tabulation of the relations between correlates; row headings are the scores on one variable and column headings are the scores on the second variables and a cell shows how many times the score on that row was associated with the score in that column

{n: cuboidal cell, cuboidal epithelial cell} an epithelial cell that shaped like a cube

{n: cyclosis, streaming} the circulation of cytoplasm within a cell

{n: cytokinesis} organic process consisting of the division of the cytoplasm of a cell following karyokinesis bringing about the separation into two daughter cells

{n: cytophotometer} a photometer that can be used to locate and identify chemical compounds in a cell by measuring the intensity of the light that passes through stained sections of the cytoplasm

{n: cytophotometry} the study of chemical compounds inside a cell by means of a cytophotometer

{n: cytoplasm, cytol} the protoplasm of a cell excluding the nucleus; is full of proteins that control cell metabolism

{n: cytoplast} the intact cytoplasmic content of a cell

{n: cytoskeleton} a microscopic network of actin filaments and microtubules in the cytoplasm of many living cells that gives the cell shape and coherence

{n: daughter cell} a cell formed by the division or budding of another cell
"anthrax grows by dividing into two daughter cells that are generally identical"

{n: dendrite} short fiber that conducts toward the cell body of the neuron

{n: deoxyribonucleic acid, desoxyribonucleic acid, DNA} (biochemistry) a long linear polymer found in the nucleus of a cell and formed from nucleotides and shaped like a double helix; associated with the transmission of genetic information
"DNA is the king of molecules"

{n: diploid} (genetics) an organism or cell having two sets of chromosomes or twice the haploid number

{n: dry cell} a small Leclanche cell containing no free liquid; the electrolyte is a paste and the negative zinc pole forms the container of the cell; used in flashlights, portable radios, etc.

{n: electrolytic cell} a cell containing an electrolyte in which an applied voltage causes a reaction to occur that would not occur otherwise (such as the breakdown of water into hydrogen and oxygen)
<-> voltaic cell

{n: embryonic stem-cell research} biological research on stem cells derived from embryos and their use in medicine

{n: endoplasm} the inner portion of the cytoplasm of a cell

{n: endospore} a small asexual spore that develops inside the cell of some bacteria and algae

{n: eosin, bromeosin} a red fluorescent dye resulting from the action of bromine on fluorescein; used in cosmetics and as a biological stain for studying cell structures

{n: epidermal cell} any of the cells making up the epidermis

{n: epithelial cell} one of the closely packed cells forming the epithelium

{n: eubacteria, eubacterium, true bacteria} a large group of bacteria having rigid cell walls; motile types have flagella

{n: exudation, transudation} the process of exuding; the slow escape of liquids from blood vessels through pores or breaks in the cell membranes

{n: facility} a service that an organization or a piece of equipment offers you
"a cell phone with internet facility"

{n: fibroblast} a cell from which connective tissue develops

{n: fission} reproduction of some unicellular organisms by division of the cell into two more or less equal parts

{n: fuel cell} cell that produces electricity by oxidation of fuel (hydrogen and oxygen or zinc and air); for use in electric cars

{n: gametocyte} an immature animal or plant cell that develops into a gamete by meiosis

{n: goblet cell} an epithelial cell that secretes mucous

{n: grey matter, gray matter, grey substance, gray substance, substantia grisea} greyish nervous tissue containing cell bodies as well as fibers; forms the cerebral cortex consisting of unmyelinated neurons

{n: growth factor} a protein that is involved in cell differentiation and growth

{n: hair cell} a sensory epithelial cell present in the organ of Corti

{n: helper T cell, helper cell, CD4 T cell, CD4 cell} T cell with CD4 receptor that recognizes antigens on the surface of a virus-infected cell and secretes lymphokines that stimulate B cells and killer T cells; helper T cells are infected and killed by the AIDS virus

{n: hematocrit, haematocrit, packed cell volume} the ratio of the volume occupied by packed red blood cells to the volume of the whole blood as measured by a hematocrit

{n: hematopoeitic stem cell} blood forming stem cells in the bone marrow; T cells and B cells arise from these stem cells

{n: heteroploid} (genetics) an organism or cell having a chromosome number that is not an even multiple of the haploid chromosome number for that species

{n: holding cell} a jail in a courthouse where accused persons can be confined during a trial

{n: homunculus} a tiny fully formed individual that (according to the discredited theory of preformation) is supposed to be present in the sperm cell

{n: human T-cell leukemia virus-1, HTLV-1} retrovirus causing T-cell leukemia

{n: hyaloplasm, ground substance} the clear nongranular portion of the cytoplasm of a cell

{n: hybridoma} a hybrid cell resulting from the fusion of a lymphocyte and a tumor cell; used to culture a specific monoclonal antibody

{n: hydremia} blood disorder in which there is excess fluid volume compared with the cell volume of the blood

{n: hypobasidium} special cell constituting the base of the basidium in various fungi especially of the order Tremellales

{n: inclusion body, cellular inclusion, inclusion} any small intracellular body found within another (characteristic of certain diseases)
"an inclusion in the cytoplasm of the cell"

{n: intelligence cell} a terrorist cell whose members are trained to perform reconnaissance and surveillance

{n: intracellular fluid} liquid contained inside the cell membranes (usually containing dissolved solutes)

{n: intussusception} (biology) growth in the surface area of a cell by the deposit of new particles between existing particles in the cell wall

{n: islands of Langerhans, isles of Langerhans, islets of Langerhans} cell clusters in the pancreas that form the endocrine part of that organ; secrete insulin and other hormones

{n: karyokinesis} organic process consisting of the division of the nucleus of a cell during mitosis or meiosis

{n: karyolymph} a clear liquid in the cell nucleus in which the nucleolus and chromatin and other structures are dispersed

{n: karyotype} the appearance of the chromosomal makeup of a somatic cell in an individual or species (including the number and arrangement and size and structure of the chromosomes)

{n: killer T cell, killer cell, cytotoxic T cell, CD8 T cell, CD8 cell} T cell with CD8 receptor that recognizes antigens on the surface of a virus-infected cell and binds to the infected cell and kill it

{n: kinin, cytokinin} any of a class of plant hormones that promote cell division and delay the senescence of leaves

{n: lead-acid battery, lead-acid accumulator} a battery with lead electrodes with dilute sulphuric acid as the electrolyte; each cell generates about 2 volts

{n: leptosporangium} a sporangium formed from a single epidermal cell; characteristic of the Filicales or of almost all modern ferns

{n: leukocyte, leucocyte, white blood cell, white cell, white blood corpuscle, white corpuscle, WBC} blood cells that engulf and digest bacteria and fungi; an important part of the body's defense system

{n: leukopenia, leucopenia} an abnormal lowering of the white blood cell count

{n: lignin} a complex polymer; the chief constituent of wood other than carbohydrates; binds to cellulose fibers to harden and strengthen cell walls of plants

{n: linin} an obsolete term for the network of viscous material in the cell nucleus on which the chromatin granules were thought to be suspended

{n: luteinizing hormone, LH, interstitial cell-stimulating hormone, ICSH} a gonadotropic hormone that is secreted by the anterior pituitary; stimulates ovulation in female mammals and stimulates androgen release in male mammals

{n: lymphocyte, lymph cell} an agranulocytic leukocyte that normally makes up a quarter of the white blood cell count but increases in the presence of infection

{n: lysozyme, muramidase} an enzyme found in saliva and sweat and tears that destroys the cell walls of certain bacteria

{n: mast cell, mastocyte, labrocyte} a large connective tissue cell that contains histamine and heparin and serotonin which are released in allergic reactions or in response to injury or inflammation

{n: megakaryocyte} a large bone marrow cell; regarded as the source of blood platelets

{n: meiosis, miosis, reduction division} (genetics) cell division that produces reproductive cells in sexually reproducing organisms; the nucleus divides into four nuclei each containing half the chromosome number (leading to gametes in animals and spores in plants)

{n: melanoblast} an epidermal cell that is a precursor of a melanocyte

{n: melanocyte} a cell in the basal layer of the epidermis that produces melanin under the control of the melanocyte-stimulating hormone

{n: merozoite} a cell that arises from the asexual division of a parent sporozoan during its life cycle

{n: messenger RNA, mRNA, template RNA, informational RNA} the template for protein synthesis; the form of RNA that carries information from DNA in the nucleus to the ribosome sites of protein synthesis in the cell

{n: metabolism, metabolic process, metastasis} the organic processes (in a cell or organism) that are necessary for life

{n: microcyte} an abnormally small red blood cell (less than 5 microns in diameter)

{n: microgliacyte} a cell of the microglia that may become phagocytic and collect waste products of nerve tissue

{n: microscope} magnifier of the image of small objects
"the invention of the microscope led to the discovery of the cell"

{n: mitosis} cell division in which the nucleus divides into nuclei containing the same number of chromosomes

{n: mosaicism} the condition in which an organism has two or more cell populations that differ in genetic makeup

{n: musca volitans, muscae volitantes, floater, spots} spots before the eyes caused by opaque cell fragments in the vitreous humor and lens

{n: muscle cell, muscle fiber, muscle fibre} an elongated contractile cell that forms the muscles of the body

{n: mycoplasma} any of a group of small parasitic bacteria that lack a cell walls and can survive without oxygen; can cause pneumonia and urinary tract infection

{n: myenteric plexus, plexus myentericus} a plexus of unmyelinated fibers and postganglionic autonomic cell bodies in the muscular coat of the esophagus and stomach and intestines

{n: necrobiosis, cell death} (physiology) the normal degeneration and death of living cells (as in various epithelial cells)

{n: neoplastic cell} a cell that is part of tumor

{n: nerve cell, neuron} a cell that is specialized to conduct nerve impulses

{n: nerve fiber, nerve fibre} a threadlike extension of a nerve cell

{n: neurogliacyte, neuroglial cell, glial cell} a cell of the neuroglia

{n: nuclear RNA, nRNA} ribonucleic acid found in the nucleolus of the cell

{n: nucleoplasm, karyoplasm} the protoplasm that constitutes the nucleus of a cell

{n: nucleus, cell nucleus, karyon} a part of the cell containing DNA and RNA and responsible for growth and reproduction

{n: nucleus} any histologically identifiable mass of neural cell bodies in the brain or spinal cord

{n: oligodendrocyte} a cell of the oligodendroglia

{n: operational cell} a terrorist cell that performs clandestine activities

{n: organelle, cell organelle, cell organ} a specialized part of a cell; analogous to an organ
"the first organelle to be identified was the nucleus"

{n: osteoclast} cell that functions in the breakdown and resorption of bone tissue

{n: ovule} a small body that contains the female germ cell of a plant; develops into a seed after fertilization

{n: ovum, egg cell} the female reproductive cell; the female gamete

{n: oxidative phosphorylation} an enzymatic process in cell metabolism that synthesizes ATP from ADP

{n: parenchyma} the primary tissue of higher plants composed of thin-walled cells that remain capable of cell division even when mature; constitutes the greater part of leaves, roots, the pulp of fruits, and the pith of stems

{n: passive transport} transport of a substance across a cell membrane by diffusion; expenditure of energy is not required

{n: phagocyte, scavenger cell} a cell that engulfs and digests debris and invading microorganisms

{n: photoelectric cell, photoconductive cell, photocell, electric eye, magic eye} a transducer used to detect and measure light and other radiations

{n: pilus} hairlike structure especially on the surface of a cell or microorganism

{n: plant cell} a cell that is a structural and functional unit of a plant

{n: plasma cell, plasmacyte} a cell that develops from a B lymphocyte in reaction to a specific antigen; found in bone marrow and sometimes in the blood

{n: plasmablast} the precursor of a plasma cell

{n: polar body} a small cell containing little cytoplasm that is produced along with the oocyte and later discarded

{n: polyphone, polyphonic letter} a letter that has two or more pronunciations
"`c' is a polyphone because it is pronounced like `k' in `car' but like `s' in `cell'"

{n: polyploid} (genetics) an organism or cell having more than twice the haploid number of chromosomes

{n: preformation, theory of preformation} a theory (popular in the 18th century and now discredited) that an individual develops by simple enlargement of a tiny fully formed organism (a homunculus) that exists in the germ cell

{n: prickle cell} a cell in the germinal layer of the skin (the prickle-cell layer); has many spines and radiating processes

{n: protoplasm, living substance} the substance of a living cell (including cytoplasm and nucleus)

{n: pycnosis, pyknosis} a degenerative state of the cell nucleus

{n: reagin} an immunoglobulin E that is formed as an antibody against allergens (such as pollen); attaches to cell membranes causing the release of histamine and other substances responsible for the local inflammation characteristic of an allergy

{n: red blood cell, RBC, erythrocyte} a mature blood cell that contains hemoglobin to carry oxygen to the bodily tissues; a biconcave disc that has no nucleus

{n: replication} (genetics) the process whereby DNA makes a copy of itself before cell division

{n: respiratory quotient} the ratio of the volume of carbon dioxide expired to the volume of oxygen consumed by an organism or cell in a given period of time

{n: resting potential} the potential difference between the two sides of the membrane of a nerve cell when the cell is not conducting an impulse

{n: ribonucleic acid, RNA} (biochemistry) a long linear polymer of nucleotides found in the nucleus but mainly in the cytoplasm of a cell where it is associated with microsomes; it transmits genetic information from DNA to the cytoplasm and controls certain chemical processes in the cell
"ribonucleic acid is the genetic material of some viruses"

{n: ribosome} an organelle in the cytoplasm of a living cell; they attach to mRNA and move down it one codon at a time and then stop until tRNA brings the required amino acid; when it reaches a stop codon it falls apart and releases the completed protein molecule for use by the cell
"the ribosome is the site of protein synthesis"

{n: rod, rod cell, retinal rod} visual receptor cell sensitive to dim light

{n: root hair} thin hairlike outgrowth of an epidermal cell just behind the tip; absorbs nutrients from the soil

{n: scallop, crenation, crenature, crenel, crenelle} one of a series of rounded projections (or the notches between them) formed by curves along an edge (as the edge of a leaf or piece of cloth or the margin of a shell or a shriveled red blood cell observed in a hypertonic solution etc.)

{n: secretion} a functionally specialized substance (especially one that is not a waste) released from a gland or cell

{n: selenium cell} a photoelectric cell that uses a strip of selenium

{n: semipermeable membrane} a membrane (as a cell membrane) that allows some molecule to pass through but not others

{n: sickle cell} an abnormal red blood cell that has a crescent shape and an abnormal form of hemoglobin

{n: skin cell} any of the cells making up the skin

{n: smooth muscle cell} cells of the smooth muscles

{n: solar cell, photovoltaic cell} a cell that converts solar energy into electrical energy

{n: somatic cell nuclear transplantation, somatic cell nuclear transfer, SCNT, nuclear transplantation} moving a cell nucleus and its genetic material from one cell to another

{n: somatic cell, vegetative cell} any of the cells of a plant or animal except the reproductive cells; a cell that does not participate in the production of gametes
"somatic cells are produced from preexisting cells";

{n: specialization, specialisation, differentiation} (biology) the structural adaptation of some body part for a particular function
"cell differentiation in the developing embryo"

{n: sperm, sperm cell, spermatozoon, spermatozoan} the male reproductive cell; the male gamete
"a sperm is mostly a nucleus surrounded by little other cellular material"

{n: spindle} (biology) tiny fibers that are seen in cell division; the fibers radiate from two poles and meet at the equator in the middle
"chromosomes are distributed by spindles in mitosis and meiosis"

{n: squamous cell} an epithelial cell that is flat like a plate and form a single layer of epithelial tissue

{n: stainability} (cytology) the capacity of cells or cell parts to stain specifically with certain dyes

{n: stem cell} an undifferentiated cell whose daughter cells may differentiate into other cell types (such as blood cells)

{n: stem-cell research} research on stem cells and their use in medicine

{n: storage cell, secondary cell} a cell that can be recharged

{n: striated muscle cell, striated muscle fiber} an elongated contractile cell in striated muscle tissue

{n: target cell} an abnormal red blood cell with the appearance of a dark ring surrounding a dark center; associated with anemia

{n: target cell} any cell that has a specific receptor for an antigen or antibody or hormone or drug, or is the focus of contact by a virus or phagocyte or nerve fiber etc.

{n: taste cell, gustatory cell} an epithelial cell in a taste bud that activates sensory fibers of the facial nerve or the glossopharyngeal nerve or the vagus nerve

{n: terrorist cell, radical cell} a cell of terrorists (usually 3 to 5 members)
"to insure operational security the members of adjacent terrorist cells usually don't know each other or the identity of their leadership"

{n: totipotency, totipotence} the ability of a cell to give rise to unlike cells and so to develop a new organism or part
"animal cells lose their totipotency at an early stage in embryonic development"

{n: tracheid} long tubular cell peculiar to xylem

{n: transduction} (genetics) the process of transfering genetic material from one cell to another by a plasmid or bacteriophage

{n: transfer RNA, tRNA, acceptor RNA, soluble RNA} RNA molecules present in the cell (in at least 20 varieties, each variety capable of combining with a specific amino acid) that attach the correct amino acid to the protein chain that is being synthesized at the ribosome of the cell (according to directions coded in the mRNA)

{n: transformation} (genetics) modification of a cell or bacterium by the uptake and incorporation of exogenous DNA

{n: transport} an exchange of molecules (and their kinetic energy and momentum) across the boundary between adjacent layers of a fluid or across cell membranes

{n: trisomy} chrosomal abnormality in which there is one more than the normal number of chromosomes in a cell

{n: tumor virus} a cell-free filtrate held to be a virus responsible for a specific neoplasm

{n: turgor} (biology) the normal rigid state of fullness of a cell or blood vessel or capillary resulting from pressure of the contents against the wall or membrane

{n: ubiquinone, coenzyme Q} any of several quinones found in living cells and that function as coenzymes that transfer electrons from one molecule to another in cell respiration

{n: unit cell} the smallest group of atoms or molecules whose repetition at regular intervals in three dimensions produces the lattices of a crystal

{n: vacuole} a tiny cavity filled with fluid in the cytoplasm of a cell

{n: vinblastine, Velban} periwinkle plant derivative used as an antineoplastic drug (trade name Velban) that disrupts cell division

{n: virino} (microbiology) a hypothetical infectious particle thought to be the cause of scrapie and other degenerative diseases of the central nervous system; consists of nucleic acid in a protective coat of host cell proteins

{n: visual cell} one of the cells of the retina that is sensitive to light

{n: vitamin Bc, vitamin M, folate, folic acid, folacin, pteroylglutamic acid, pteroylmonoglutamic acid} a B vitamin that is essential for cell growth and reproduction

{n: vitamin P, bioflavinoid, citrin} a vitamin that maintains the resistance of cell and capillary walls to permeation

{n: voltaic cell, galvanic cell, primary cell} an electric cell that generates an electromotive force by an irreversible conversion of chemical to electrical energy; cannot be recharged
<-> electrolytic cell

{n: zygote, fertilized ovum} the cell resulting from the union of an ovum and a spermatozoon (including the organism that develops from that cell)

{v: cell phone} call up by using a cellular phone
"If the train is late, I will cell phone you"

{v: enucleate} remove the nucleus from (a cell)

{v: panic} cause sudden fear in or fill with sudden panic
"The mere thought of an isolation cell panicked the prisoners"

{v: replicate, copy} biology: reproduce or make an exact copy of
"replicate the cell"
"copy the genetic information"

{v: transform} change (a bacterial cell) into a genetically distinct cell by the introduction of DNA from another cell of the same or closely related species


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