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{adj: absurd, cockeyed, derisory, idiotic, laughable, ludicrous, nonsensical, preposterous, ridiculous} incongruous;inviting ridicule
"the absurd excuse that the dog ate his homework"
"that's a cockeyed idea"
"ask a nonsensical question and get a nonsensical answer"
"a contribution so small as to be laughable"
"it is ludicrous to call a cottage a mansion"
"a preposterous attempt to turn back the pages of history"
"her conceited assumption of universal interest in her rather dull children was ridiculous"

{adj: altered} changed in form or character without becoming something else
"the altered policy promised success"
"following an altered course we soon found ourselves back in civilization"
"he looked...with clouded eyes and with an altered manner of breathing"- Charles Dickens
<-> unaltered

{adj: amphitropous} (of a plant ovule) partly inverted; turned back 90 degrees on its stalk
<-> anatropous

{adj: anatropous, inverted} (of a plant ovule) completely inverted; turned back 180 degrees on its stalk
<-> amphitropous

{adj: arduous, backbreaking, grueling, gruelling, hard, heavy, laborious, operose, punishing, toilsome} characterized by toilsome effort to the point of exhaustion; especially physical effort
"worked their arduous way up the mining valley"
"a grueling campaign"
"hard labor"
"heavy work"
"heavy going"
"spent many laborious hours on the project"
"set a punishing pace"

{adj: backed} used of film that is coated on the side opposite the emulsion with a substance to absorb light

{adj: backhand, backhanded} (of racket strokes) made across the body with back of hand facing direction of stroke
<-> forehand

{adj: bandaged, bound} covered or wrapped with a bandage
"the bandaged wound on the back of his head"
"an injury bound in fresh gauze"

{adj: bended, bent} used of the back and knees; stooped
"on bended knee"
"with bent (or bended) back"

{adj: checked, curbed} held back from some action especially by force

{adj: cross-banded} (of snakes) having crossing bands on the back

{adj: dead, drained} drained of electric charge; discharged
"a dead battery"
"left the lights on and came back to find the battery drained"

{adj: deep} having great spatial extension or penetration downward or inward from an outer surface or backward or laterally or outward from a center; sometimes used in combination
"a deep well"
"a deep dive"
"deep water"
"a deep casserole"
"a deep gash"
"deep massage"
"deep pressure receptors in muscles"
"deep shelves"
"a deep closet"
"surrounded by a deep yard"
"hit the ball to deep center field"
"in deep space"
<-> shallow

{adj: dorsal} belonging to or on or near the back or upper surface of an animal or organ or part
"the dorsal fin is the vertical fin on the back of a fish and certain marine mammals"
<-> ventral

{adj: drudging, laboring, labouring, toiling} doing arduous or unpleasant work
"drudging peasants"
"the bent backs of laboring slaves picking cotton"
"toiling coal miners in the black deeps"

{adj: dull} lacking in liveliness or animation
"he was so dull at parties"
"a dull political campaign"
"a large dull impassive man"
"dull days with nothing to do"
"how dull and dreary the world is"
"fell back into one of her dull moods"
<-> lively

{adj: encroaching, invasive, trespassing} gradually intrusive without right or permission
"we moved back from the encroaching tide"
"invasive tourists"
"trespassing hunters"

{adj: familial} relating to or having the characteristics of a family
"children of the same familial background"
"familial aggregation"

{adj: forehand, forehanded} (of racket strokes) made with palm facing direction of stroke
<-> backhand

{adj: forward} at or near or directed toward the front
"the forward section of the aircraft"
"a forward plunge down the stairs"
"forward motion"
<-> backward

{adj: gladdened, exhilarated} made joyful
"the sun and the wind on his back made him feel exhilarated--happy to be alive"

{adj: in full view} easily visible
"she turned her back on her rival in full view of everyone"

{adj: laid-back, mellow} unhurried and relaxed
"a mellow conversation"

{adj: on the hook} caught in a difficult or dangerous situation
"there I was back on the hook"

{adj: panicky, panicked, panic-stricken, panic-struck, terrified, frightened} thrown into a state of intense fear or desperation
"became panicky as the snow deepened"
"felt panicked before each exam"
"trying to keep back the panic-stricken crowd"
"the terrified horse bolted"

{adj: rear, rearward} located in or toward the back or rear
"the chair's rear legs"
"the rear door of the plane"
"on the rearward side"

{adj: rested} not tired; refreshed as by sleeping or relaxing
"came back rested from her vacation"
<-> tired

{adj: retractile} capable of retraction; capable of being drawn back
"cats have retractile claws"
<-> nonretractile

{adj: retral, retrograde} moving or directed or tending in a backward direction or contrary to a previous direction

{adj: reverse} of the transmission gear causing backward movement in a motor vehicle
"in reverse gear"
<-> forward

{adj: shallow} lacking physical depth; having little spatial extension downward or inward from an outer surface or backward or outward from a center
"shallow water"
"a shallow dish"
"a shallow cut"
"a shallow closet"
"established a shallow beachhead"
"hit the ball to shallow left field"
<-> deep

{adj: thrown} caused to fall to the ground
"the thrown rider got back on his horse"
"a thrown wrestler"
"a ball player thrown for a loss"

{adj: unreflected} (especially of incident sound or light) not turned back by physical reflection
<-> reflected

{adj: unsatisfactory} not giving satisfaction
"shops should take back unsatisfactory goods"
"her performance proved to be unsatisfactory"
"life is becoming increasingly unsatifactory"
"our discussion was very unsatisfactory"
<-> satisfactory

{adj: walk-in} (of e.g. closets or refrigerators) extending very far enough back to allow a person to enter
"a deep walk-in refrigerator"
"walk-in closets"

{adv: ahead, forward} toward the future; forward in time
"I like to look ahead in imagination to what the future may bring"
"I look forward to seeing you"
<-> back, backward

{adv: back and forth, backward and forward, to and fro} moving from one place to another and back again
"he traveled back and forth between Los Angeles and New York"
"the treetops whipped to and fro in a frightening manner"
"the old man just sat on the porch and rocked back and forth all day"

{adv: backstage} out of view of the public; behind the scenes
"Working backstage to gain political support for his proposal"
"many private deals were made backstage at the convention"

{adv: backward, backwards} in a manner or order or direction the reverse of normal
"it's easy to get the `i' and the `e' backward in words like `seize' and `siege'"
"the child put her jersey on backward"

{adv: back} in or to or toward a former location
"she went back to her parents' house"

{adv: back} in or to or toward an original condition
"he went back to sleep"

{adv: back} in repayment or retaliation
"we paid back everything we had borrowed"
"he hit me and I hit him back"
"I was kept in after school for talking back to the teacher"

{adv: forward, forwards, frontward, frontwards, forrad, forrard} at or to or toward the front
"he faced forward"
"step forward"
"she practiced sewing backward as well as frontward on her new sewing machine"; (`forrad' and `forrard' are dialectal variations)
<-> backward

{adv: horseback, ahorse, ahorseback} on the back of a horse
"he rode horseback to town"
"managed to escape ahorse"
"policeman patrolled the streets ahorseback"

{adv: huffily} in a huffy manner
"`Don't bother to call me back,' he said huffily"

{adv: largely} on a large scale
"the sketch was so largely drawn that you could see it from the back row"

{adv: next} at the time or occasion immediately following
"next the doctor examined his back"

{adv: piggyback, pickaback, pig-a-back} on a railroad flatcar
"the trailer rode piggyback across the country"

{adv: piggyback, pickaback, pig-a-back} on the back or shoulder or astraddle on the hip
"she carried her child piggyback"

{adv: quietly, quiet} with little or no activity or no agitation (`quiet' is a nonstandard variant for `quietly')
"her hands rested quietly in her lap"
"the rock star was quietly led out the back door"
"sit here as quiet as you can"
<-> unquietly

{adv: resignedly} with resignation and acceptance; in a resigned manner
"resignedly, I telegraphed back that it was all right with me if he insisted"

{adv: sometimes} on certain occasions or in certain cases but not always
"sometimes she wished she were back in England"
"sometimes her photography is breathtaking"
"sometimes they come for a month; at other times for six months"

{adv: subsequently, later, afterwards, afterward, after, later on} happening at a time subsequent to a reference time
"he apologized subsequently"
"he's going to the store but he'll be back here later"
"it didn't happen until afterward"
"two hours after that"

{adv: supinely} with the face upward
"she was stretched supinely on her back"

{n: Arab-Israeli War, Yom Kippur War} Egypt and Syria attacked Israel in October 1973 (on Yom Kippur); Israel counterattacked and drove the Syrians back and crossed the Suez Canal into Egypt

{n: Boston rocker} a rocking chair that has a high spindle back and a decorative top panel

{n: European roller, Coracias garrulus} common European blue-and-green roller with a reddish-brown back

{n: Kennelly, A. E. Kennelly, Arthur Edwin Kennelly} United States electrical engineer noted for his work on the theory of alternating currents; independently of Oliver Heaviside he discovered the existence of an atmospheric layer that reflects radio waves back to earth (1861-1939)

{n: Lambert-Eaton syndrome, Eaton-Lambert syndrome, myasthenic syndrome, carcinomatous myopathy} a disease seen in patients with lung cancer and characterized by weakness and fatigue of hip and thigh muscles and an aching back; caused by antibodies directed against the neuromuscular junctions

{n: Lot} (Old Testament) nephew of Abraham; God destroyed Sodom and Gomorrah but chose to spare Lot and his family who were told to flee without looking back at the destruction

{n: Meuse, Meuse River, Argonne, Argonne Forest, Meuse-Argonne, Meuse-Argonne operation} an American operation in World War I (1918); American troops under Pershing drove back the German armies which were saved only by the armistice on November 11

{n: Old English sheepdog, bobtail} large sheepdog with a profuse shaggy bluish-grey-and-white coat and short tail; believed to trace back to the Roman occupation of Britain

{n: United States Customary System} the system of weights and measures based on the foot and pound and second and pint that dates back to colonial America but differs in some respects from the British Imperial System; today in the United States this system exists side by side with the SI system

{n: Wedgwood} a type of pottery made by Josiah Wedgwood and his successors; typically has a classical decoration in white on a blue background

{n: alley, alleyway, back street} a narrow street with walls on both sides

{n: alligator snapping turtle, alligator snapper, Macroclemys temmincki} large species having three ridges on its back; found in southeastern United States

{n: alternation} successive change from one thing or state to another and back again

{n: amphitropous ovule} a partly inverted ovule turned back 90 degrees on its stalk

{n: anatropous ovule} a completely inverted ovule turned back 180 degrees on its stalk

{n: anchor, mainstay, keystone, backbone, linchpin, lynchpin} a central cohesive source of support and stability
"faith is his anchor"
"the keystone of campaign reform was the ban on soft money"
"he is the linchpin of this firm"

{n: angel, backer} invests in a theatrical production

{n: argyle, argyll} a design consisting of a pattern of varicolored diamonds on a solid background (originally for knitted articles); patterned after the tartan of a clan in western Scotland

{n: assimilation} the state of being assimilated; people of different backgrounds come to see themselves as part of a larger national family

{n: back burner} reduced priority
"dozens of cases were put on the back burner"
<-> front burner

{n: back channel} an alternative to the regular channels of communication that is used when agreements must be made secretly (especially in diplomacy or government)
"they negotiated via a back channel"

{n: back circle} a feat in which an acrobat arches the back from a prone position and bends the knees until the toes touch the head

{n: back door, backdoor} a secret or underhand means of access (to a place or a position)
"he got his job through the back door"

{n: back-formation} a word invented (usually unwittingly by subtracting an affix) on the assumption that a familiar word derives from it

{n: backbend} an acrobatic feat in which the trunk is bent backward from a standing position until the hands touch the floor

{n: backblast, back-blast} backfire from a recoilless weapon

{n: backbone, grit, guts, moxie, sand, gumption} fortitude and determination
"he didn't have the guts to try it"

{n: backbone} the part of a network that connects other networks together
"the backbone is the part of a communication network that carries the heaviest traffic"

{n: backfire, boomerang} a miscalculation that recoils on its maker

{n: backfire} a loud noise made by the explosion of fuel in the manifold or exhaust of an internal combustion engine

{n: backgammon board} the board on which backgammon is played

{n: backgammon} a board game for two players; pieces move according to throws of the dice

{n: background processing, backgrounding} the execution of low priority programs while higher priority programs are not using the processing system

{n: background radiation} radiation coming from sources other than those being observed

{n: background, background knowledge} information that is essential to understanding a situation or problem
"the embassy filled him in on the background of the incident"

{n: background, background signal} extraneous signals that can be confused with the phenomenon to be observed or measured
"they got a bad connection and could hardly hear one another over the background signals"

{n: backgrounder} a press conference or interview in which a government official explains to reporters the background of an action or policy
"the secretary gave us a backgrounder on public health issues"

{n: background} a person's social heritage: previous experience or training
"he is a lawyer with a sports background"

{n: background} relatively unimportant or inconspicuous accompanying situation
"when the rain came he could hear the sound of thunder in the background"

{n: backhand drive} a hard straight return made on the backhand side

{n: backhand, backhand stroke, backhand shot} a return made with the back of the hand facing the direction of the stroke

{n: backlash} an adverse reaction to some political or social occurrence
"there was a backlash of intolerance"

{n: backlog} an accumulation of jobs not done or materials not processed that are yet to be dealt with (especially unfilled customer orders for products or services)

{n: backpack, back pack, knapsack, packsack, rucksack, haversack} a bag carried by a strap on your back or shoulder

{n: backseat driver} a meddler who insists on giving unwanted advice

{n: backseat} a secondary or inferior position or status
"tennis has had to take a backseat while his work is so demanding"

{n: backsliding, lapse, lapsing, relapse, relapsing, reversion, reverting} a failure to maintain a higher state

{n: backspin} spin (usually of a moving ball) that retards or reverses the forward motion

{n: backstop} a precaution in case of an emergency
"he acted as a backstop in case anything went wrong"

{n: backstroke} a swimming stroke that resembles the crawl except the swimmer lies on his or her back

{n: backswimmer, Notonecta undulata} predaceous aquatic insect that swims on its back and may inflict painful bites

{n: backup, computer backup} (computer science) a copy of a file or directory on a separate storage device
"he made a backup in case the original was accidentally damaged or erased"

{n: backup} an accumulation caused by clogging or a stoppage
"a traffic backup on the main street"
"he discovered a backup in the toilet"

{n: backwater} any backward region that is isolated from the world and resists progress

{n: back} (football) a person who plays in the backfield

{n: back} the part of a garment that covers the back of your body
"they pinned a `kick me' sign on his back"

{n: back} the position of a player on a football team who is stationed behind the line of scrimmage

{n: bacon} back and sides of a hog salted and dried or smoked; usually sliced thin and fried

{n: bench press} a weightlifting exercise in which you lie on your back on a bench and press weights upward

{n: berlin} a limousine with a glass partition between the front and back seats

{n: binding, book binding, cover, back} the protective covering on the front, back, and spine of a book
"the book had a leather binding"

{n: black flag, pirate flag, Jolly Roger, blackjack} a flag usually bearing a white skull and crossbones on a black background; indicates a pirate ship

{n: blackbuck, black buck, Antilope cervicapra} common Indian antelope with a dark back and spiral horns

{n: blowhole} the spiracle of a cetacean located far back on the skull

{n: brass knucks, knucks, brass knuckles, knuckles, knuckle duster} a small metal weapon; worn over the knuckles on the back of the hand

{n: breaststroke} a swimming stroke; the arms are extended together in front of the head and swept back on either side accompanied by a frog kick

{n: buttocks, nates, arse, butt, backside, bum, buns, can, fundament, hindquarters, hind end, keister, posterior, prat, rear, rear end, rump, stern, seat, tail, tail end, tooshie, tush, bottom, behind, derriere, fanny, ass} the fleshy part of the human body that you sit on
"he deserves a good kick in the butt"
"are you going to sit on your fanny and do nothing?"

{n: carbon cycle} the organic circulation of carbon from the atmosphere into organisms and back again

{n: carpet snake, Python variegatus, Morelia spilotes variegatus} Australian python with a variegated pattern on its back

{n: case history} detailed record of the background of a person or group under study or treatment

{n: catch, grab, snatch, snap} the act of catching an object with the hands
"Mays made the catch with his back to the plate"
"he made a grab for the ball before it landed"
"Martin's snatch at the bridle failed and the horse raced away"
"the infielder's snap and throw was a single motion"

{n: catcher, backstop} (baseball) the person who plays the position of catcher

{n: catch} a cooperative game in which a ball is passed back and forth
"he played catch with his son in the backyard"

{n: ceras} one of the often brightly colored and branching hornlike structures on the back of the nudibranch (and other related mollusks) that serve as gills

{n: chair} a seat for one person, with a support for the back
"he put his coat over the back of the chair and sat down"

{n: chop, chop shot} a tennis return made with a downward motion that puts backspin on the ball

{n: chum salmon, chum, Oncorhynchus keta} a large Pacific salmon with small spots on its back; an important food fish

{n: click beetle, skipjack, snapping beetle} able to right itself when on its back by flipping into the air with a clicking sound

{n: common iguana, iguana, Iguana iguana} large herbivorous tropical American arboreal lizards with a spiny crest along the back; used as human food in Central America and South America

{n: compact disk, compact disc, CD} a digitally encoded recording on an optical disk that is smaller than a phonograph record; played back by a laser

{n: coonskin cap, coonskin} a raccoon cap with the tail hanging down the back

{n: cosmic background radiation, CBR, cosmic microwave background radiation, CMBR, cosmic microwave background, CMB} (cosmology) the cooled remnant of the hot big bang that fills the entire universe and can be observed today with an average temperature of about 2.725 kelvin

{n: countermarch} (military) a march in the reverse direction or back along the same route

{n: covered option} a put or call option backed by the shares underlying the option

{n: crested screamer} distinguished from the horned screamer by a feathery crest on the back of the head

{n: crosshead} metal block that connects to a piston; it slides on parallel guides and moves a connecting rod back and forth

{n: cryonics} the freezing of a seriously ill or recently deceased person to stop tissues from decomposing; the body is preserved until new medical cures are developed that might bring the person back to life
"cryonics is more science fiction than serious science"

{n: cup} the hole (or metal container in the hole) on a golf green
"he swore as the ball rimmed the cup and rolled away"
"put the flag back in the cup"

{n: dark ground illumination, dark field illumination} a form of microscopic examination of living material by scattered light; specimens appear luminous against a dark background

{n: death's-head moth, Acherontia atropos} European hawkmoth with markings on the back resembling a human skull

{n: deck tennis} game played mainly on board ocean liners; players toss a ring back and forth over a net that is stretched across a small court

{n: defamer, maligner, slanderer, vilifier, libeler, backbiter, traducer} one who attacks the reputation of another by slander or libel

{n: defect, fault, flaw} an imperfection in a device or machine
"if there are any defects you should send it back to the manufacturer"

{n: dig} a small gouge (as in the cover of a book)
"the book was in good condition except for a dig in the back cover"

{n: disfigurement, disfiguration, deformity} an appearance that has been spoiled or is misshapen
"there were distinguishing disfigurements on the suspect's back"
"suffering from facial disfiguration"

{n: dorsal fin} unpaired median fin on the backs of fishes and some other aquatic vertebrates that help to maintain balance

{n: dorsiflexion} the act of bending backward (of the body or a body part)

{n: ease, easiness, simplicity, simpleness} freedom from difficulty or hardship or effort
"he rose through the ranks with apparent ease"
"they put it into containers for ease of transportation"
"the very easiness of the deed held her back"
<-> difficulty

{n: eastern red-backed salamander, Plethodon cinereus} common salamander of eastern North America

{n: eddy, twist} a miniature whirlpool or whirlwind resulting when the current of a fluid doubles back on itself

{n: embankment} a long artificial mound of stone or earth; built to hold back water or to support a road or as protection

{n: exposition} an account that sets forth the meaning or intent of a writing or discourse
"we would have understood the play better if there had been some initial exposition of the background"

{n: face lift, facelift, lift, face lifting, cosmetic surgery, rhytidectomy, rhytidoplasty, nip and tuck} plastic surgery to remove wrinkles and other signs of aging from your face; an incision is made near the hair line and skin is pulled back and excess tissue is excised
"some actresses have more than one face lift"

{n: fairy shrimp} small freshwater branchiopod having a transparent body with many appendages; swims on its back

{n: finish} (wine tasting) the taste of a wine on the back of the tongue (as it is swallowed)
"the wine has a nutty flavor and a pleasant finish"

{n: folding door, accordion door} an interior door that opens by folding back in sections (rather than by swinging on hinges)

{n: free throw lane} a lane on a basketball court extending from the end line to 15 feet in front of the backboard; players may not enter this lane during a free throw

{n: frontiersman, backwoodsman, mountain man} a man who lives on the frontier

{n: full nelson} a wrestling hold in which the holder puts both arms under the opponent's arms and exerts pressure on the back of the neck (illegal in amateur wrestling)

{n: fullback} (football) the running back who plays the fullback position on the offensive team

{n: fullback} the position of a back on a football team

{n: gastrocnemius, gastrocnemius muscle} the muscle in the back part of the leg that forms the greater part of the calf; responsible for the plantar flexion of the foot

{n: glossopharyngeal nerve, nervus glossopharyngeus, ninth cranial nerve} sensory nerve to the pharynx and back of the tongue; motor fibers innervate muscles that elevate the pharynx and larynx; includes parasympathetic fibers to the otic ganglion

{n: green monkey, African green monkey, Cercopithecus aethiops sabaeus} common savannah monkey with greenish-grey back and yellow tail

{n: greenhouse effect, greenhouse warming} warming that results when solar radiation is trapped by the atmosphere; caused by atmospheric gases that allow sunshine to pass through but absorb heat that is radiated back from the warmed surface of the earth

{n: greenmail} (corporation) the practice of purchasing enough shares in a firm to threaten a takeover and thereby forcing the owners to buy those shares back at a premium in order to stay in business

{n: grison, Grison vittatus, Galictis vittatus} carnivore of Central America and South America resembling a weasel with a greyish-white back and dark underparts

{n: ground} a relatively homogeneous percept extending back of the figure on which attention is focused
<-> figure

{n: half nelson} a wrestling hold in which the holder puts an arm under the opponent's arm and exerts press on the back of the neck

{n: halfback} (football) the running back who plays the offensive halfback position

{n: halfback} the position of a back on a football team

{n: hamstring, hamstring tendon} one of the tendons at the back of the knee

{n: handspring} an acrobatic feat in which a person goes from a standing position to a handstand and back again

{n: hard tick, ixodid} ticks having a hard shield on the back and mouth parts that project from the head

{n: headrest, head restraint} a cushion attached to the top of the back of an automobile's seat to prevent whiplash

{n: heartburn, pyrosis} a painful burning sensation in the chest caused by gastroesophageal reflux (backflow from the stomach irritating the esophagus); symptomatic of an ulcer or a diaphragmatic hernia or other disorder

{n: heel} the bottom of a shoe or boot; the back part of a shoe or boot that touches the ground and provides elevation

{n: hopscotch} a game in which a child tosses a stone into an area drawn on the ground and then hops through it and back to regain the stone

{n: howdah, houdah} a (usually canopied) seat for riding on the back of a camel or elephant

{n: humpback, hunchback, crookback} a person whose back is hunched because of abnormal curvature of the upper spine

{n: inactiveness, inactivity, inertia} a disposition to remain inactive or inert
"he had to overcome his inertia and get back to work"
<-> activeness

{n: inion} the craniometric point that is the most prominent point at the back of the head (at the occipital protuberance)

{n: insult, affront} a deliberately offensive act or something producing the effect of deliberate disrespect
"turning his back on me was a deliberate insult"

{n: invertebrate} any animal lacking a backbone or notochord; the term is not used as a scientific classification

{n: irradiation} the apparent enlargement of a bright object when viewed against a dark background

{n: kick turn} a standing turn made in skiing; one ski is raised to the vertical and pivoted backward to become parallel with the other ski but headed in the opposite direction and then the other ski is aligned with the first

{n: kick up} raising the feet backward with the hands on the ground; a first movement in doing a handstand

{n: kip, upstart} a gymnastic exercise performed starting from a position with the legs over the upper body and moving to an erect position by arching the back and swinging the legs out and down while forcing the chest upright

{n: land, dry land, earth, ground, solid ground, terra firma} the solid part of the earth's surface
"the plane turned away from the sea and moved back over land"
"the earth shook for several minutes"
"he dropped the logs on the ground"

{n: latisimus dorsi, lat} a broad flat muscle on either side of the back

{n: lay-up, layup} a basketball shot made with one hand from a position under or beside the basket (and usually banked off the backboard)

{n: license plate, numberplate} a plate mounted on the front and back of car and bearing the car's registration number

{n: linebacker, line backer} a defensive football player who takes a position close behind the linemen

{n: linebacker, line backer} the position of a defensive football player who plays close behind the line of scrimmage

{n: lithotomy position} a position lying on your back with knees bent and thighs apart; assumed for vaginal or rectal examination

{n: loon, diver} large somewhat primitive fish-eating diving bird of the northern hemisphere having webbed feet placed far back; related to the grebes

{n: loop gain} (telecommunication) the gain of a feedback amplifier or system as a function of how much output is fed back to the input
"if the loop gain is too great the system may go into oscillation"

{n: lumbago, lumbar pain} backache affecting the lumbar region or lower back; can be caused by muscle strain or arthritis or vascular insufficiency or a ruptured intervertebral disc

{n: lunar excursion module, lunar module, LEM} a spacecraft that carries astronauts from the command module to the surface of the moon and back

{n: mesocolon} mesentery that holds the lower colon the back abdominal wall

{n: mortgage-backed security} a security created when a group of mortgages are gathered together and bonds are sold to other institutions or the public; investors receive a portion of the interest payments on the mortgages as well as the principal payments; usually guaranteed by the government

{n: nitrogen cycle} the circulation of nitrogen; nitrates from the soil are absorbed by plants which are eaten by animals that die and decay returning the nitrogen back to the soil

{n: oyster} a small muscle on each side of the back of a fowl

{n: pachisi} an ancient board game resembling backgammon; played on a cross-shaped board

{n: packing, backpacking} carrying something in a pack on the back
"the backpacking of oxygen is essential for astronauts"

{n: pack} a bundle (especially one carried on the back)

{n: paste-up} a composition of flat objects pasted on a board or other backing
"they showed him a paste-up of the book jacket"

{n: pew, church bench} long bench with backs; used in church by the congregation

{n: pleat, plait} any of various types of fold formed by doubling fabric back upon itself and then pressing or stitching into shape

{n: position, place} the particular portion of space occupied by something
"he put the lamp back in its place"

{n: precentral gyrus} the convolution of the frontal lobe that is bounded in back by the central sulcus and that contains the motor area

{n: pump action, slide action} action mechanism in a modern rifle or shotgun; a back and forward motion of a sliding lever ejects the empty shell case and cocks the firearm and loads a new round

{n: pursued, chased} a person who is being chased
"the film jumped back and forth from the pursuer to the pursued"

{n: quarterback, signal caller, field general} the position of the football player in the backfield who directs the offensive play of his team
"quarterback is the most important position on the team"

{n: radar echo} an electronic signal that has been reflected back to the radar antenna; contains information about the location and distance of the reflecting object

{n: radial nerve, nervus radialis, musculospiral nerve} largest branch of the brachial plexus; extends down the humerus to the lateral epicondyle where it divides into one branch that goes to the skin on the back of the hand and another that goes to the underlying extensor muscles

{n: rear window} car window that allows vision out of the back of the car

{n: rear, back} the side that goes last or is not normally seen
"he wrote the date on the back of the photograph"
<-> front

{n: rear} the back of a military formation or procession
"infantrymen were in the rear"
<-> head

{n: reason} an explanation of the cause of some phenomenon
"the reason a steady state was never reached was that the back pressure built up too slowly"

{n: recession, ceding back} the act of ceding back

{n: reciprocation} alternating back-and-forth movement

{n: recoil, repercussion, rebound, backlash} a movement back from an impact

{n: red-backed sandpiper, dunlin, Erolia alpina} small common sandpiper that breeds in northern or arctic regions and winters in southern United States or Mediterranean regions

{n: redemption, repurchase, buyback} the act of purchasing back something previously sold

{n: reference, source} a publication (or a passage from a publication) that is referred to
"he carried an armful of references back to his desk"
"he spent hours looking for the source of that quotation"

{n: reflection, reflexion} the phenomenon of a propagating wave (light or sound) being thrown back from a surface

{n: regress, reasoning backward} the reasoning involved when you assume the conclusion is true and reason backward to the evidence

{n: regurgitation} backflow of blood through a defective heart valve

{n: relation back, relation} (law) the principle that an act done at a later time is deemed by law to have occurred at an earlier time
"his attorney argued for the relation back of the amended complaint to the time the initial complaint was filed"

{n: relative, relation} a person related by blood or marriage
"police are searching for relatives of the deceased"
"he has distant relations back in New Jersey"

{n: relief, relievo, rilievo, embossment, sculptural relief} sculpture consisting of shapes carved on a surface so as to stand out from the surrounding background

{n: remand} the act of sending an accused person back into custody to await trial (or the continuation of the trial)

{n: reservation} the act of keeping back or setting aside for some future occasion

{n: restitution, return, restoration, regaining} getting something back again
"upon the restitution of the book to its rightful owner the child was given a tongue lashing"

{n: retardation, mental retardation, backwardness, slowness, subnormality} lack of normal development of intellectual capacities

{n: retardation} the extent to which something is delayed or held back

{n: retinal detachment, detachment of the retina, detached retina} visual impairment resulting from the retina becoming separated from the choroid in the back of the eye; treated by photocoagulation

{n: retraction, abjuration, recantation} a disavowal or taking back of a previous assertion

{n: retraction} the act of pulling or holding or drawing a part back
"the retraction of the landing gear"
"retraction of the foreskin"

{n: retractor} surgical instrument that holds back the edges of a surgical incision

{n: retroflection, retroflexion} an articulatory gesture made by turning the tip of the tongue back against the roof of the mouth

{n: retroflection, retroflexion} the act of bending backward

{n: retroversion, retroflection, retroflexion} a turning or tilting backward of an organ or body part
"retroversion of the uterus"

{n: retroversion} translation back into the original language
"the teacher translated Latin texts into English which he gave to his students for retroversion"

{n: return, coming back} the occurrence of a change in direction back in the opposite direction

{n: return, paying back, getting even} a reciprocal group action
"in return we gave them as good as we got"

{n: return} (American football) the act of running back the ball after a kickoff or punt or interception or fumble

{n: return} a tennis stroke that sends the ball back to the other player
"he won the point on a cross-court return"

{n: return} the act of going back to a prior location
"they set out on their return to the base camp"

{n: revers, revere} a lapel on a woman's garment; turned back to show the reverse side

{n: reverse} (American football) a running play in which a back running in one direction hands the ball to a back running in the opposite direction

{n: riding, horseback riding, equitation} the sport of siting on the back of a horse while controlling its movements

{n: riff} a jazz ostinato; usually provides a background for a solo improvisation

{n: roller, tumbler, tumbler pigeon} pigeon that executes backward somersaults in flight or on the ground

{n: roots} the condition of belonging to a particular place or group by virtue of social or ethnic or cultural lineage
"his roots in Texas go back a long way"
"he went back to Sweden to search for his roots"
"his music has African roots"

{n: running back} (football) a back on the offensive team (a fullback or halfback) who tries to advance the ball by carrying it on plays from the line of scrimmage

{n: saddle hackle, saddle feather} a long narrow feather on the back (saddle) of a domestic fowl

{n: saddle sore, gall} an open sore on the back of a horse caused by ill-fitting or badly adjusted saddle

{n: saddle} cut of meat (especially mutton or lamb) consisting of part of the backbone and both loins

{n: sand painting} a painting done by Amerindians (especially Navaho); made of fine colored sands on a neutral background

{n: sass, sassing, backtalk, back talk, lip, mouth} an impudent or insolent rejoinder
"don't give me any of your sass"

{n: satellite television, satellite TV} a television system in which the signal is transmitted to an orbiting satellite that receives the signal and amplifies it and transmits it back to earth

{n: satin} a smooth fabric of silk or rayon; has a glossy face and a dull back

{n: sculler} someone who sculls (moves a long oar pivoted on the back of the boat to propel the boat forward)

{n: setting, background, scope} the state of the environment in which a situation exists
"you can't do that in a university setting"

{n: sewing, stitchery} needlework on which you are working with needle and thread
"she put her sewing back in the basket"

{n: sight} an instance of visual perception
"the sight of his wife brought him back to reality"
"the train was an unexpected sight"

{n: sky wave} a radio wave that is reflected back to earth by the ionosphere or a communications satellite; permits transmission around the curve of the earth's surface

{n: slapper, spanker} a hitter who slaps (usually another person) with an open hand
"someone slapped me on the back and I turned to see who the slapper was"
"my father was the designated spanker in our family"

{n: sloth, tree sloth} any of several slow-moving arboreal mammals of South America and Central America; they hang from branches back downward and feed on leaves and fruits

{n: soak, soakage, soaking} the process of becoming softened and saturated as a consequence of being immersed in water (or other liquid)
"a good soak put life back in the wagon"

{n: solution, answer, result, resolution, solvent} a statement that solves a problem or explains how to solve the problem
"they were trying to find a peaceful solution"
"the answers were in the back of the book"
"he computed the result to four decimal places"

{n: spinal column, vertebral column, spine, backbone, back, rachis} the series of vertebrae forming the axis of the skeleton and protecting the spinal cord
"the fall broke his back"

{n: spine, backbone} the part of a book's cover that encloses the inner side of the book's pages and that faces outward when the book is shelved
"the title and author were printed on the spine of the book"

{n: square one} the situation in which you begin an endeavor and to which you return if your efforts fail
"the police are now back at square one after having arrested and released 27 men"
"she has tried to diet but always ends up back at square one"

{n: stegosaur, stegosaurus, Stegosaur stenops} herbivorous ornithischian dinosaur with a row of bony plates along its back and a spiked tail probably used as a weapon

{n: strappado, strapado} a form of torture in which the hands are tied behind a person's back and they are lifted off the ground by a rope tied to their wrists, then allowed to drop until their fall is checked with a jerk by the rope

{n: support, financial support, funding, backing, financial backing} financial resources provided to make some project possible
"the foundation provided support for the experiment"

{n: supporter, protagonist, champion, admirer, booster, friend} a person who backs a politician or a team etc.
"all their supporters came out for the game"
"they are friends of the library"

{n: swing, swinging, vacillation} changing location by moving back and forth

{n: tailback} the position of the offensive back on a football team who lines up farthest from the line of scrimmage

{n: telemeter} any scientific instrument for observing events at a distance and transmitting the information back to the observer

{n: telephone, phone, telephone set} electronic equipment that converts sound into electrical signals that can be transmitted over distances and then converts received signals back into sounds
"I talked to him on the telephone"

{n: tension headache} a headache located at the back of the head; usually caused by body tension resulting from overwork or psychological stress

{n: thorny skate, Raja radiata} cold-water bottom fish with spines on the back; to 40 inches

{n: thylacine, Tasmanian wolf, Tasmanian tiger, Thylacinus cynocephalus} rare doglike carnivorous marsupial of Tasmania having stripes on its back; probably extinct

{n: time} a person's experience on a particular occasion
"he had a time holding back the tears"
"they had a good time together"

{n: top, cover} covering for a hole (especially a hole in the top of a container)
"he removed the top of the carton"
"he couldn't get the top off of the bottle"
"put the cover back on the kettle"

{n: train} piece of cloth forming the long back section of a gown that is drawn along the floor
"the bride's train was carried by her two young nephews"

{n: transduction} the process whereby a transducer accepts energy in one form and gives back related energy in a different form
"the transduction of acoustic waves into voltages by a microphone"

{n: treasury stock, treasury shares, reacquired stock} stock that has been bought back by the issuing corporation and is available for retirement or resale; it is issued but not outstanding; it cannot vote and pays no dividends

{n: wall} a difficult or awkward situation
"his back was to the wall"
"competition was pushing them to the wall"

{n: wave, undulation} (physics) a movement up and down or back and forth

{n: western red-backed salamander, Plethodon vehiculum} salamander of the Pacific coast of North America

{n: wiggliness} a jerky back and forth kind of mobility
"he walked with the wiggliness of a child on high heels"

{n: willowware, willow-pattern} chinaware decorated with a blue Chinese design on a white background depicting a willow tree and often a river

{n: window} a transparent opening in a vehicle that allow vision out of the sides or back; usually is capable of being opened

{n: wing chair} easy chair having wings on each side of a high back

{n: wingback} the position of the offensive back who lines up behind or outside the end

{n: withdrawal, backdown, climb-down} a retraction of a previously held position

{n: withholder} a person who restrains or checks or holds back

{n: withholding} the act of holding back or keeping within your possession or control
"I resented his withholding permission"
"there were allegations of the withholding of evidence"

{n: xanthoma} a skin problem marked by the development (on the eyelids and neck and back) of irregular yellow nodules; sometimes attributable to disturbances of cholesterol metabolism

{n: youth subculture} a minority youth culture whose distinctiveness depended largely on the social class and ethnic background of its members; often characterized by its adoption of a particular music genre

{v: ascend} go back in order of genealogical succession
"Inheritance may not ascend linearly"

{v: back up, back off, back down} move backwards from a certain position
"The bully had to back down"

{v: backcross} mate a hybrid of the first generation with one of its parents

{v: backpedal} modify one' opinion, make it less strong

{v: backpedal} pedal backwards on a bicycle

{v: backscatter} scatter (radiation) by the atoms of the medium through which it passes

{v: backspace} hit the backspace key on a computer or typewriter keyboard
"To erase, you must backspace"

{v: backstroke} swim on one's back

{v: back} shift to a counterclockwise direction
"the wind backed"
<-> veer

{v: bear down} pay special attention to
"The lectures bore down on the political background"

{v: bet on, back, gage, stake, game, punt} place a bet on
"Which horse are you backing?"
"I'm betting on the new horse"

{v: be} occupy a certain position or area ; be somewhere
"Where is my umbrella?" "The toolshed is in the back"
"What is behind this behavior?"

{v: bob} move up and down repeatedly
"her rucksack bobbed gently on her back"

{v: check, turn back, arrest, stop, contain, hold back} hold back, as of a danger or an enemy ; check the expansion or influence of
"Arrest the downward trend"
"Check the growth of communism in Sout East Asia"
"Contain the rebel movement"
"Turn back the tide of communism"

{v: chicken out, back off, pull out, back down, bow out} remove oneself from an obligation
"He bowed out when he heard how much work was involved"

{v: co-opt} choose or elect as a fellow member or colleague
"The church members co-opted individuals from similar backgrounds to replenish the congregation"

{v: count off} call in turn from right to left or from back to front numbers that determine some position or function

{v: crouch, stoop, bend, bow} bend one's back forward from the waist on down
"he crouched down"
"She bowed before the Queen"
"The young man stooped to pick up the girl's purse"

{v: dislocate, luxate, splay, slip} move out of position
"dislocate joints"
"the artificial hip joint luxated and had to be put back surgically"

{v: drop back} take position in the rear, especially of a military formation or team sporting event, "The defender dropped back behind his teammate"

{v: ebb, ebb away, ebb down, ebb out, ebb off} flow back or recede
"the tides ebbed at noon"
<-> tide

{v: fall} drop oneself to a lower or less erect position
"She fell back in her chair"
"He fell to his knees"

{v: feed back, resubmit} submit (information) again to a program or automatic system

{v: fight, oppose, fight back, fight down, defend} fight against or resist strongly
"The senator said he would oppose the bill"
"Don't fight it!"

{v: foreground, highlight, spotlight, play up} move into the foreground to make more visible or prominent
"The introduction highlighted the speaker's distinguished career in linguistics"
<-> background, play down

{v: form, constitute, make} to compose or represent:"This wall forms the background of the stage setting"
"The branches made a roof"
"This makes a fine introduction"

{v: front, look, face} be oriented in a certain direction, often with respect to another reference point ; be opposite to
"The house looks north"
"My backyard look onto the pond"
"The building faces the park"
<-> back

{v: glare} be sharply reflected
"The moon glared back at itself from the lake's surface"

{v: harp, dwell} come back to
"Don't dwell on the past"
"She is always harping on the same old things"

{v: hop on, mount, mount up, get on, jump on, climb on, bestride} get on the back of
"mount a horse"
<-> hop out

{v: lay over, stop over} interrupt a journey temporarily, e.g., overnight
"We had to stop over in Venezuela on our flight back from Brazil"

{v: look back, look backward} look towards one's back
"don't look back while you walk"

{v: look} perceive with attention ; direct one's gaze towards
"She looked over the expanse of land"
"Look at your child!"
"Look--a deer in the backyard!"

{v: mark} make or leave a mark on
"mark the trail so that we can find our way back"

{v: move back and forth} move in one direction and then into the opposite direction

{v: neck, make out} kiss, embrace, or fondle with sexual passion
"The couple were necking in the back seat of the car"

{v: nod} sway gently back and forth, as is in a nodding motion
"the flowers were nodding in the breeze"

{v: nurse} treat carefully
"He nursed his injured back by liyng in bed several hours every afternoon"
"He nursed the flowers in his garden and fertilized them regularly"

{v: pack} carry, as on one's back
"Pack your tents to the top of the mountain"

{v: palaver} have a lengthy discussion, usually between people of different backgrounds

{v: pay back, pay off, get, fix} take vengeance on or get even
"We'll get them!"
"That'll fix him good!"
"This time I got him"

{v: pay} make a compensation for
"a favor that cannot be paid back"

{v: piggyback} carry on the back or shoulders
"She piggybacked a sick classmate to school"

{v: piggyback} ride on someone's shoulders or back

{v: piggyback} support on the back and shoulders
"He piggybacked her child so she could see the show"

{v: play back, replay} reproduce (a recording) on a recorder
"The lawyers played back the conversation to show that their client was innocent"

{v: pull back} move to a rearward position ; pull towards the back
"Pull back your arms!"

{v: put on, apply} apply to a surface
"She applied paint to the back of the house"
"Put on make-up!"

{v: rear back} rear backwards on its hindlegs
"the frightened horse reared back"

{v: recall, call back} summon to return
"The ambassador was recalled to his country"
"The company called back many of the workers it had laid off during the recession"

{v: recover, go back, recuperate} regain a former condition after a financial loss
"We expect the stocks to recover to $2.90"
"The company managed to recuperate"

{v: reduce, cut down, cut back, trim, trim down, trim back, cut, bring down} cut down on ; make a reduction in
"reduce your daily fat intake"
"The employer wants to cut back health benefits"

{v: reduce} reposition (a broken bone after surgery) back to its normal site

{v: reflect, reverberate} to throw or bend back or reflect (from a surface)
"A mirror in the sun can reflect light into a person's eyes"
"Sound is reflected well in this auditorium"

{v: reflect} manifest or bring back
"This action reflects his true beliefs"

{v: regress, retrograde, retrogress} get worse ; fall back to a previous or worse condition
<-> progress

{v: remember, retrieve, recall, call back, call up, recollect, think} recall knowledge from memory ; have a recollection
"I can't remember saying any such thing"
"I can't think what her last name was"
"can you remember her phone number?"
"Do you remember that he once loved you?"
"call up memories"
<-> forget

{v: remit, remand, send back} refer (a matter or legal case) to another committe or authority or court for decision

{v: renege, renege on, renegue on, go back on} fail to fulfill a promise or obligation
"She backed out of her promise"

{v: replace, put back} put something back where it belongs
"replace the book on the shelf after you have finished reading it"
"please put the clean dishes back in the cabinet when you have washed them"

{v: reserve} hold back or set aside, especially for future use or contingency
"they held back their applause in anticipation"

{v: restore, reinstate, reestablish} bring back into original existence, use, function, or position
"restore law and order"
"reestablish peace in the region"
"restore the emperor to the throne"

{v: restrain, confine, hold} to close within bounds, limit or hold back from movement
"This holds the local until the express passengers change trains"
"About a dozen animals were held inside the stockade"
"The illegal immigrants were held at a detention center"
"The terrorists held the journalists for ransom"

{v: restrict, curtail, curb, cut back} place restrictions on
"curtail drinking in school"

{v: resuspend} put back into suspension
"resuspend particles"

{v: retain, hold, keep back, hold back} secure and keep for possible future use or application
"The landlord retained the security deposit"
"I reserve the right to disagree"

{v: retaliate, strike back} make a counterattack and return like for like, especially evil for evil
"The Empire strikes back"
"The Giants struck back and won the opener"
"The Israeli army retaliated for the Hamas bombing"

{v: review, look back, retrospect} look back upon (a period of time, sequence of events, etc.) ; remember
"she reviewed her achievements with pride"

{v: reward, repay, pay back} act or give recompensation in recognition of someone's behavior or actions

{v: ride, sit} sit and travel on the back of animal, usually while controlling its motions
"She never sat a horse!"
"Did you ever ride a camel?"
"The girl liked to drive the young mare"

{v: rock, sway, shake} move back and forth or sideways
"the ship was rocking"
"the tall building swayed"
"She rocked back and forth on her feet"

{v: run, go, pass, lead, extend} stretch out over a distance, space, time, or scope ; run or extend between two points or beyond a certain point
"Service runs all the way to Cranbury"
"His knowledge doesn't go very far"
"My memory extends back to my fourth year of life"
"The facts extend beyond a consideration of her personal assets"

{v: sass} answer back in an impudent or insolent manner
"don't sass me!"
"The teacher punished the students who were sassing all morning"

{v: second, back, endorse, indorse} give support or one's approval to
"I'll second that motion"
"I can't back this plan"
"endorse a new project"

{v: shovel} dig with or as if with a shovel
"shovel sand"
"he shovelled in the backyard all afternoon long"

{v: silhouette} project on a background, such as a screen, like a silhouette

{v: sit back, take it easy} settle into a comfortable sitting position

{v: sit by, sit back} be inactive or indifferent while something is happening
"Don't just sit by while your rights are violated!"

{v: smooch, snog, spoon} snuggle and lie in a position where one person faces the back of the others

{v: stand back} stand away from an object or person
"He stood back to look at her"

{v: survive, last, live, live on, go, endure, hold up, hold out} continue to live ; endure or last
"We went without water and food for 3 days"
"These superstitions survive in the backwaters of America"
"The racecar driver lived through several very serious accidents"

{v: swing} change direction with a swinging motion ; turn
"swing back"
"swing forward"

{v: take back, repossess} regain possession of something

{v: take back} resume a relationship with someone after an interruption, as in a wife taking back her husband

{v: throw back, toss back} throw back with a quick, light motion
"She tossed back her head"

{v: undercut} strike (the ball) in golf, tennis, or hockey obliquely downward so as to give a backspin or elevation to the shot

{v: veer} shift to a clockwise direction
"the wind veered"
<-> back

{v: widen, broaden, extend} extend in scope or range or area
"The law was extended to all citizens"
"widen the range of applications"
"broaden your horizon"
"Extend your backyard"

{v: win back, get back} recover something or somebody that appeared to be lost
"We got back the money after we threatened to sue the company"
"He got back his son from the kidnappers"

{v: withhold, keep back} hold back ; refuse to hand over or share
"The father is withholding the allowance until the son cleans his room"

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