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{adj: arduous, backbreaking, grueling, gruelling, hard, heavy, laborious, operose, punishing, toilsome} characterized by toilsome effort to the point of exhaustion; especially physical effort
"worked their arduous way up the mining valley"
"a grueling campaign"
"hard labor"
"heavy work"
"heavy going"
"spent many laborious hours on the project"
"set a punishing pace"

{adj: backed, backed up} having backing
"a claim backed up by strong evidence"

{adj: versatile} able to move freely in all directions
"an owl's versatile toe can move backward and forward"
"an insect's versatile antennae can move up and down or laterally"
"a versatile anther of a flower moves freely in the wind"


{adv: up and down} moving backward and forward along a given course
"he walked up and down the locker room"
"all up and down the Eastern seaboard"

{n: accompaniment, musical accompaniment, backup, support} a subordinate musical part; provides background for more important parts

{n: backfield} the offensive football players who line up behind the linemen

{n: backing, backup, championship, patronage} the act of providing approval and support
"his vigorous backing of the conservatives got him in trouble with progressives"

{n: backroom} the meeting place of a group of leaders who make their decisions via private negotiations

{n: backup file} (computer science) a computer file dedicated to storing and updating computer backups

{n: backup system} a computer system for making backups

{n: backup, computer backup} (computer science) a copy of a file or directory on a separate storage device
"he made a backup in case the original was accidentally damaged or erased"

{n: backup} an accumulation caused by clogging or a stoppage
"a traffic backup on the main street"
"he discovered a backup in the toilet"

{n: case history} detailed record of the background of a person or group under study or treatment

{n: cuff, turnup} the lap consisting of a turned-back hem encircling the end of the sleeve or leg

{n: cup} a small open container usually used for drinking; usually has a handle
"he put the cup back in the saucer"
"the handle of the cup was missing"

{n: cup} the hole (or metal container in the hole) on a golf green
"he swore as the ball rimmed the cup and rolled away"
"put the flag back in the cup"

{n: doo-wop} a genre (usually a cappella) of Black vocal-harmony music of the 1950s that evolved in New York City from gospel singing; characterized by close four-part harmonies; the name derived from some of the nonsense syllables sung by the backup

{n: half gainer} a dive in which the diver throws the feet forward and up to complete a half backward somersault and enters the water facing the diving board

{n: hammerlock} a wrestling hold in which the opponent's arm is twisted up behind his back

{n: hometown} the town (or city) where you grew up or where you have your principal residence
"he never went back to his hometown again"

{n: kick up} raising the feet backward with the hands on the ground; a first movement in doing a handstand

{n: lay-up, layup} a basketball shot made with one hand from a position under or beside the basket (and usually banked off the backboard)

{n: mortgage-backed security} a security created when a group of mortgages are gathered together and bonds are sold to other institutions or the public; investors receive a portion of the interest payments on the mortgages as well as the principal payments; usually guaranteed by the government

{n: paste-up} a composition of flat objects pasted on a board or other backing
"they showed him a paste-up of the book jacket"

{n: peroneal vein, fibular vein, vena peroneus} accompany the peroneal arteries; arising in the heel and running up the back of the leg to join the posterior tibial veins of the popliteal vein

{n: pull, pulling} the act of pulling; applying force to move something toward or with you
"the pull up the hill had him breathing harder"
"his strenuous pulling strained his back"

{n: reason} an explanation of the cause of some phenomenon
"the reason a steady state was never reached was that the back pressure built up too slowly"

{n: return, paying back, getting even} a reciprocal group action
"in return we gave them as good as we got"

{n: roots} the condition of belonging to a particular place or group by virtue of social or ethnic or cultural lineage
"his roots in Texas go back a long way"
"he went back to Sweden to search for his roots"
"his music has African roots"

{n: shaking} the act of causing something to move up and down (or back and forth) with quick movements

{n: short saphenous vein} a vein running from the foot up the back of the leg to the knee

{n: square one} the situation in which you begin an endeavor and to which you return if your efforts fail
"the police are now back at square one after having arrested and released 27 men"
"she has tried to diet but always ends up back at square one"

{n: stand-in, substitute, relief, reliever, backup, backup man, fill-in} someone who takes the place of another (as when things get dangerous or difficult)
"the star had a stand-in for dangerous scenes"
"we need extra employees for summer fill-ins"

{n: tailback} the position of the offensive back on a football team who lines up farthest from the line of scrimmage

{n: tea-strainer} a device to keep back tea leaves when pouring a cup of tea

{n: wave, undulation} (physics) a movement up and down or back and forth

{n: wingback} the position of the offensive back who lines up behind or outside the end

{n: working group, working party} a group of people working together temporarily until some goal is achieved
"the working group was supposed to report back in two weeks"

{v: back up, back off, back down} move backwards from a certain position
"The bully had to back down"

{v: back up} make a copy of (a computer file) especially for storage in another place as a security cop
"You'd better back up these files!"

{v: back, back up} establish as valid or genuine
"Can you back up your claims?"

{v: background, play down, downplay} understate the importance or quality of
"he played down his royal ancestry"
<-> foreground, play up

{v: back} travel backward
"back into the driveway"
"The car backed up and hit the tree"

{v: bob} move up and down repeatedly
"her rucksack bobbed gently on her back"

{v: clog, choke off, clog up, back up, congest, choke, foul} become or cause to become obstructed
"The leaves clog our drains in the Fall"
"The water pipe is backed up"
<-> unclog

{v: constitute, represent, make up, comprise, be} form or compose
"This money is my only income"
"The stone wall was the backdrop for the performance"
"These constitute my entire belonging"
"The children made up the chorus"
"This sum represents my entire income for a year"
"These few men comprise his entire army"

{v: crouch, stoop, bend, bow} bend one's back forward from the waist on down
"he crouched down"
"She bowed before the Queen"
"The young man stooped to pick up the girl's purse"

{v: embrace, encompass, comprehend, cover} include in scope ; include as part of something broader ; have as one's sphere or territory
"This group encompasses a wide range of people from different backgrounds"
"this should cover everyone in the group"

{v: foreground, highlight, spotlight, play up} move into the foreground to make more visible or prominent
"The introduction highlighted the speaker's distinguished career in linguistics"
<-> background, play down

{v: hang up} put a telephone receiver back in its cradle

{v: hop on, mount, mount up, get on, jump on, climb on, bestride} get on the back of
"mount a horse"
<-> hop out

{v: pick up} lift out or reflect from a background
"The scarf picks up the color of the skirt"
"His eyes picked up his smile"

{v: put on, apply} apply to a surface
"She applied paint to the back of the house"
"Put on make-up!"

{v: remember, retrieve, recall, call back, call up, recollect, think} recall knowledge from memory ; have a recollection
"I can't remember saying any such thing"
"I can't think what her last name was"
"can you remember her phone number?"
"Do you remember that he once loved you?"
"call up memories"
<-> forget

{v: stand up} refuse to back down ; remain solid under criticism or attack

{v: support, back up} give moral or psychological support, aid, or courage to
"She supported him during the illness"
"Her children always backed her up"

{v: survive, last, live, live on, go, endure, hold up, hold out} continue to live ; endure or last
"We went without water and food for 3 days"
"These superstitions survive in the backwaters of America"
"The racecar driver lived through several very serious accidents"


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