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{adj: Gram-negative} (of bacteria) being of or relating to a bacterium that does not retain the violet stain used in Gram's method

{adj: Gram-positive} (of bacteria) being or relating to a bacterium that retains the violet stain used in Gram's method

{adj: acidophilic, acidophilous, aciduric} especially of some bacteria; growing well in an acid medium

{adj: activated} (of sewage) treated with aeration and bacteria to aid decomposition

{adj: adjuvant} enhancing the action of a medical treatment
"the adjuvant action of certain bacteria"

{adj: aerobiotic} living or active only in the presence of oxygen
"aerobiotic bacteria"

{adj: anaerobic, anaerobiotic} living or active in the absence of free oxygen
"anaerobic bacteria"
<-> aerobic

{adj: antibacterial} destroying bacteria or inhibiting their growth

{adj: antiseptic, sterilized, sterilised} made free from live bacteria or other microorganisms
"sterilized instruments"

{adj: bacterial} relating to or caused by bacteria
"bacterial infection"

{adj: bacteroidal, bacteroid, bacterioidal, bacterioid} resembling bacteria

{adj: biodegradable} capable of being decomposed by e.g. bacteria
"a biodegradable detergent"

{adj: cyanobacterial, cyanophyte} relating to or caused by photosynthetic bacteria of the class Cyanobacteria

{adj: harmless} not causing or capable of causing harm
"harmless bacteria"
"rendered the bomb harmless"
<-> harmful

{adj: infective, morbific, pathogenic} able to cause disease
"infective agents"
"pathogenic bacteria"

{adj: penicillin-resistant} unaffected by penicillin
"penicillin-resistant bacteria"

{adj: pneumococcal} of or derived from or caused by bacteria of the genus pneumococcus

{adj: staphylococcal} of or relating to the staphylococcus bacteria
"a staphylococcal infection"

{adj: vibrionic} caused by bacteria of the genus Vibrio
"vibrionic dysentery"

{adv: bacterially} by bacteria
"spreads bacterially"

{n: Actinomycetaceae, family Actinomycetaceae} filamentous anaerobic bacteria

{n: Actinomycetales, order Actinomycetales} filamentous or rod-shaped bacteria

{n: Aerobacter aerogenes} a species of Gram-negative aerobic bacteria that produce gas and acid from sugars and are sometimes involved in the souring of milk

{n: Aerobacter, genus Aerobacter} aerobic bacteria widely distributed in nature

{n: Agrobacterium tumefaciens} the bacteria that produce crown gall disease in plants

{n: Athiorhodaceae, family Athiorhodaceae} small motile sulphur bacteria

{n: Bacillaceae, family Bacillaceae} typically rod-shaped usually Gram-positive bacteria that produce endospores

{n: Bacteroidaceae, family Bacteroidaceae} family of bacteria living usually in the alimentary canal or on mucous surfaces of warm-blooded animals; sometimes associated with acute infective processes

{n: Bacteroides, genus Bacteroides} type genus of Bacteroidaceae; genus of Gram-negative rodlike anaerobic bacteria producing no endospores and no pigment and living in the gut of man and animals

{n: Calymmatobacterium granulomatis} the species of bacteria that causes granuloma inguinale

{n: Chlamydia psittaci, C. psittaci} bacteria responsible for the sexually transmitted disease chlamydia

{n: Chlamydia trachomatis, C. trachomatis} bacteria responsible for the sexually transmitted diseases chlamydia and lymphogranuloma venereum

{n: Cohn, Ferdinand Julius Cohn} German botanist who is generally recognized as founding bacteriology when he recognized bacteria as plants

{n: Corynebacteriaceae, family Corynebacteriaceae} a large family of mostly Gram-positive and aerobic and nonmotile rod-shaped bacteria of the order Eubacteriales

{n: Enterobacteriaceae, family Enterobacteriaceae} a large family of Gram-negative rod-shaped bacteria of the order Eubacteriales

{n: Eubacteriales, order Eubacteriales} one of two usually recognized orders of true bacteria; Gram-positive spherical or rod-shaped forms; some are motile; in some classifications considered an order of Schizomycetes

{n: Francisella, genus Francisella} a genus of Gram-negative aerobic bacteria that occur as pathogens and parasite in many animals (including humans)

{n: Gram's method, Gram method, Gram's procedure, Gram's stain, Gram stain} a staining technique used to classify bacteria; bacteria are stained with gentian violet and then treated with Gram's solution; after being decolorized with alcohol and treated with safranine and washed in water, those that retain the gentian violet are Gram-positive and those that do not retain it are Gram-negative

{n: Gram's solution} a solution used in staining bacteria by Gram's method; consists of one part iodine and two parts potassium iodide and 300 parts water

{n: Gram, Hans C. J. Gram} Danish physician and bacteriologist who developed a method of staining bacteria to distinguish among them (1853-1938)

{n: Heliobacter, genus Heliobacter} a genus of helical or curved or straight aerobic bacteria with rounded ends and multiple flagella; found in the gastric mucosa of primates (including humans)

{n: Kupffer's cell} specialized cells in the liver that destroy bacteria and foreign proteins and worn-out blood cells

{n: Lactobacillaceae, family Lactobacillaceae, Lactobacteriaceae, family Lactobacteriaceae} lactic acid bacteria and important pathogens; bacteria that ferment carbohydrates chiefly into lactic acid

{n: Legionnaires' disease} acute (sometimes fatal) lobar pneumonia caused by bacteria of a kind first recognized after an outbreak of the disease at an American Legion convention in Philadelphia in 1976; characterized by fever and muscle and chest pain and headache and chills and a dry cough

{n: Lyme disease, Lyme arthritis} an acute inflammatory disease characterized by a rash with joint swelling and fever; caused by bacteria carried by the bite of a deer tick

{n: Monera, kingdom Monera, Prokayotae, kingdom Prokaryotae} prokaryotic bacteria and blue-green algae and various primitive pathogens; because of lack of consensus on how to divide the organisms into phyla informal names are used for the major divisions

{n: Mycobacteriaceae, family Mycobacteriaceae} a family of bacteria

{n: Mycoplasmataceae, family Mycoplasmataceae} pleomorphic Gram-negative nonmotile microorganism similar to both viruses and bacteria; parasitic in mammals

{n: Nitrobacter, genus Nitrobacter} rod-shaped soil bacteria

{n: Nitrobacteriaceae, family Nitrobacteriaceae} usually rod-shaped bacteria that oxidize ammonia or nitrites: nitrobacteria

{n: Nitrosomonas, genus Nitrosomonas} ellipsoidal soil bacteria

{n: Petri dish} a shallow dish used to culture bacteria

{n: Polyangiaceae, family Polyangiaceae, Myxobacteriaceae, family Myxobacteriaceae} bacteria living mostly in soils and on dung

{n: Proterozoic, Proterozoic eon, Proterozoic aeon} from 2,500 to 544 million years ago; bacteria and fungi; primitive multicellular organisms

{n: Pseudomonadales, order Pseudomonadales} one of two usually recognized orders of true bacteria; Gram-negative spiral or spherical or rod-shaped bacteria usually motile by polar flagella; some contain photosynthetic pigments

{n: Pseudomonas pyocanea} a species of aerobic bacteria

{n: Pseudomonodaceae, family Pseudomonodaceae} rod-shaped Gram-negative bacteria; include important plant and animal pathogens

{n: Rhizobiaceae, family Rhizobiaceae} a small family of rod-shaped bacteria

{n: Rickettsiaceae, family Rickettsiaceae} microorganism resembling bacteria inhabiting arthropod tissues but capable of causing disease in vertebrates

{n: Rocky Mountain spotted fever, mountain fever, tick fever} caused by rickettsial bacteria and transmitted by wood ticks

{n: Spirillaceae, family Spirillaceae} rigid spirally curved elongate bacteria

{n: Spirochaetaceae, family Spirochaetaceae} large coarsely spiral bacteria; free-living in fresh or salt water or commensal in bodies of oysters

{n: Spirochaetales, order Spirochaetales} higher bacteria; slender spiral rodlike forms

{n: Streptococcus anhemolyticus} a species of bacteria

{n: Streptomycetaceae, family Streptomycetaceae} higher bacteria typically aerobic soil saprophytes

{n: Thallophyta} used only in former classifications: comprising what is now considered a heterogeneous assemblage of flowerless and seedless organisms: algae; bacteria; fungi; lichens

{n: Thiobacteriaceae, family Thiobacteriaceae} free-living coccoid to rod-shaped bacteria that derive energy from oxidizing sulfur or sulfur compounds

{n: Vibrio fetus} bacteria that cause abortion in sheep

{n: Xanthomonas, genus Xanthomonas} a genus of bacteria similar to Pseudomonas but producing a yellow pigment that is not soluble in water

{n: Yersinia pestis} a bacillus bacterium that causes the plague; aerosolized bacteria can be used as a bioweapon

{n: acidophilus milk} milk fermented by bacteria; used to treat gastrointestinal disorders

{n: actinomycete} any bacteria (some of which are pathogenic for humans and animals) belonging to the order Actinomycetales

{n: actinomycin} any of various red antibiotics isolated from soil bacteria

{n: agglutination} a clumping of bacteria or red cells when held together by antibodies (agglutinins)

{n: antibacterial, antibacterial drug, bactericide} any drug that destroys bacteria or inhibits their growth

{n: archaebacteria, archaebacterium, archaeobacteria, archeobacteria} considered ancient life forms that evolved separately from bacteria and blue-green algae

{n: arthrospore} a body that resembles a spore but is not an endospore; produced by some bacteria

{n: bacteremia, bacteriemia, bacteriaemia} transient presence of bacteria (or other microorganisms) in the blood

{n: bacteria bed} layer of sand or gravel used to expose sewage effluent to air and the action of microorganisms

{n: bacteria family} a family of bacteria

{n: bacteria genus} a genus of bacteria

{n: bacteria order} an order of bacteria

{n: bacteria species} a species of bacteria

{n: bacteria, bacterium} (microbiology) single-celled or noncellular spherical or spiral or rod-shaped organisms lacking chlorophyll that reproduce by fission; important as pathogens and for biochemical properties; taxonomy is difficult; often considered plants

{n: bactericide, bacteriacide} any chemical agent that destroys bacteria

{n: bacteriochlorophyll} a substance in photosensitive bacteria that is related to but different from chlorophyll of higher plants

{n: bacteriologist} a biologist who studies bacteria

{n: bacteriology} the branch of medical science that studies bacteria in relation to disease

{n: bacteriolysis} dissolution or destruction of bacteria

{n: bacteriophage, phage} a virus that is parasitic in bacteria
"phage uses the bacterium's machinery and energy to produce more phage until the bacterium is destroyed and phage is released to invade surrounding bacteria"

{n: bacteriostasis} inhibition of the growth of bacteria

{n: bacteroid} a rodlike bacterium (especially any of the rod-shaped or branched bacteria in the root nodules of nitrogen-fixing plants)

{n: biological warfare, BW, biological attack, biologic attack, bioattack} the use of bacteria or viruses or toxins to destroy men and animals or food

{n: bioremediation} the act of treating waste or pollutants by the use of microorganisms (as bacteria) that can break down the undesirable substances

{n: biotechnology} the branch of molecular biology that studies the use of microorganisms to perform specific industrial processes
"biotechnology produced genetically altered bacteria that solved the problem"

{n: cerebrospinal meningitis, epidemic meningitis, brain fever, cerebrospinal fever} meningitis caused by bacteria and often fatal

{n: chemosynthesis} synthesis of carbohydrate from carbon dioxide and water; limited to certain bacteria and fungi

{n: chlamydia} a sexually transmitted infection caused by bacteria of the genus Chlamydia

{n: class Cyanobacteria, Cyanophyceae, class Cyanophyceae} photosynthetic bacteria found in fresh and salt water, having chlorophyll a and phycobilins; once thought to be algae: blue-green algae

{n: clean room, white room} a room that is virtually free of dust or bacteria; used in laboratory work and in assembly or repair of precision equipment

{n: coccus, cocci} any spherical or nearly spherical bacteria

{n: comma bacillus, Vibrio comma} comma-shaped bacteria that cause Asiatic cholera

{n: dental plaque, bacterial plaque} a film of mucus and bacteria deposited on the teeth that encourages the development of dental caries

{n: digestion} the process of decomposing organic matter (as in sewage) by bacteria or by chemical action or heat

{n: diplococcus} Gram-positive bacteria usually occurring in pairs

{n: endospore-forming bacteria} a group of true bacteria

{n: endospore} a small asexual spore that develops inside the cell of some bacteria and algae

{n: enteric bacteria, enterobacteria, enterics, entric} rod-shaped Gram-negative bacteria; most occur normally or pathogenically in intestines of humans and other animals

{n: enzyme-linked-immunosorbent serologic assay, ELISA} an assay that relies on an enzymatic conversion reaction and is used to detect the presence of specific substances (such as enzymes or viruses or antibodies or bacteria)

{n: epsilon toxin, Clostridium perfringens epsilon toxin} a bacterial toxin produced by clostridium perfringens; causes intense abdominal cramps and diarrhea that begins 8-22 hours after consumption of foods containing large numbers of these bacteria

{n: erwinia} rod-shaped motile bacteria that attack plants

{n: erythromycin, Erythrocin, E-Mycin, Ethril, Ilosone, Pediamycin} an antibiotic (trade name Erythrocin or E-Mycin or Ethril or Ilosone or Pediamycin) obtained from the actinomycete Streptomyces erythreus; effective against many Gram-positive bacteria and some Gram-negative

{n: escherichia} a genus of enteric bacteria

{n: eubacteria, eubacterium, true bacteria} a large group of bacteria having rigid cell walls; motile types have flagella

{n: eukaryote, eucaryote} an organism with cells characteristic of all life forms except primitive microorganisms such as bacteria; i.e. an organism with `good' or membrane-bound nuclei in its cells
<-> prokaryote

{n: flagellum} a lash-like appendage used for locomotion (e.g., in sperm cells and some bacteria and protozoa)

{n: flushless toilet} a toilet that relies on bacteria to break down waste matter (instead of using water)

{n: gas gangrene, clostridial myonecrosis, emphysematous gangrene, emphysematous phlegmon, gangrenous emphysema, gas phlegmon, progressive emphysematous necrosis} (pathology) a deadly form of gangrene usually caused by clostridium bacteria that produce toxins that cause tissue death; can be used as a bioweapon

{n: genus Diplococcus} a genus of bacteria

{n: genus Erwinia} a genus of bacteria

{n: genus Escherichia} a genus of bacteria

{n: genus Klebsiella} a genus of bacteria

{n: genus Listeria} a genus of aerobic motile bacteria of the family Corynebacteriaceae containing small Gram-positive rods

{n: genus Mycobacterium} nonmotile Gram-positive aerobic bacteria

{n: genus Salmonella} a genus of bacteria

{n: genus Serratia, Serratia} a genus of motile peritrichous bacteria that contain small Gram-negative rod

{n: genus Shigella} a genus of bacteria

{n: genus Spirillum} a genus of bacteria

{n: genus Streptococcus} a genus of bacteria

{n: genus Thiobacillus} a genus of bacteria

{n: genus Vibrio} a genus of bacteria

{n: germ warfare, bacteriological warfare} the use of harmful bacteria as a weapon

{n: gramicidin} an antibiotic produced by a soil bacterium; used chiefly as an antiseptic in treating local infections produced by Gram-positive bacteria

{n: immune response, immune reaction, immunologic response} a bodily defense reaction that recognizes an invading substance (an antigen: such as a virus or fungus or bacteria or transplanted organ) and produces antibodies specific against that antigen

{n: immunoglobulin G, IgG} one of the five major classes of immunoglobulins; the main antibody defense against bacteria

{n: lactobacillus} Gram-positive rod-shaped bacteria that produce lactic acid especially in milk

{n: leukocyte, leucocyte, white blood cell, white cell, white blood corpuscle, white corpuscle, WBC} blood cells that engulf and digest bacteria and fungi; an important part of the body's defense system

{n: lysis} (biochemistry) dissolution or destruction of cells such as blood cells or bacteria

{n: lysozyme, muramidase} an enzyme found in saliva and sweat and tears that destroys the cell walls of certain bacteria

{n: microphage} a neutrophil that ingests small things (as bacteria)

{n: monocyte} a type of granular leukocyte that functions in the ingestion of bacteria

{n: mother} a stringy slimy substance consisting of yeast cells and bacteria; forms during fermentation and is added to cider or wine to produce vinegar

{n: mucus, mucous secretion} protective secretion of the mucous membranes; in the gut it lubricates the passage of food and protects the epithelial cells; in the nose and throat and lungs it can make it difficult for bacteria to penetrate the body through the epithelium

{n: mycobacteria, mycobacterium} rod-shaped bacteria some saprophytic or causing diseases

{n: mycoplasma} any of a group of small parasitic bacteria that lack a cell walls and can survive without oxygen; can cause pneumonia and urinary tract infection

{n: myxobacteria, myxobacterium, myxobacter, gliding bacteria, slime bacteria} bacteria that form colonies in self-produced slime; inhabit moist soils or decaying plant matter or animal waste

{n: nitric bacteria, nitrobacteria} soil bacteria that convert nitrites to nitrates

{n: nitrification} the oxidation of ammonium compounds in dead organic material into nitrates and nitrites by soil bacteria (making nitrogen available to plants)

{n: nitrobacterium} any of the bacteria in the soil that take part in the nitrogen cycle; they oxidize ammonium compounds into nitrites or oxidize nitrites into nitrates

{n: nitrofurantoin, Macrodantin} derivative of nitrofuran used as an antibacterial medicine (trade name Macrodantin) effective against a broad range of Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria; used to treat infections of the urinary tract

{n: nitrogen fixation} the assimilation of atmospheric nitrogen by soil bacteria and its release for plant use on the death of the bacteria

{n: nitrosobacteria, nitrous bacteria} soil bacteria that oxidize ammonia to nitrites

{n: nonthrombocytopenic purpura} purpura resulting from a defect in the capillaries caused by bacteria or drugs

{n: novobiocin} an antibiotic obtained from an actinomycete and used to treat infections by Gram-positive bacteria

{n: order Myxobacteria, Myxobacterales, order Myxobacterales, Myxobacteriales, order Myxobacteriales} an order of higher bacteria

{n: penicillin-resistant bacteria} bacteria that are unaffected by penicillin

{n: penicillinase, beta-lactamase} enzyme produced by certain bacteria that inactivates penicillin and results in resistance to that antibiotic

{n: phototrophic bacteria, phototropic bacteria} green and purple bacteria; energy for growth is derived from sunlight; carbon is derived from carbon dioxide or organic carbon

{n: pneumococcal pneumonia} pneumonia caused by bacteria of the genus pneumococcus

{n: pneumonia} respiratory disease characterized by inflammation of the lung parenchyma (excluding the bronchi) with congestion caused by viruses or bacteria or irritants

{n: potato scab bacteria, Streptomyces scabies} cause of a potato disease characterized by brownish corky tissue

{n: prokaryote, procaryote} a unicellular organism having cells lacking membrane-bound nuclei; bacteria are the prime example but also included are blue-green algae and actinomycetes and mycoplasma
<-> eukaryote

{n: pseudomonad} bacteria usually producing greenish fluorescent water-soluble pigment; some pathogenic for plants and animals

{n: ptomaine, ptomain} any of various amines (such as putrescine or cadaverine) formed by the action of putrefactive bacteria

{n: purple bacteria} free-living Gram-negative pink to purplish-brown bacteria containing bacteriochlorophyll

{n: pus-forming bacteria} bacteria that produce pus

{n: pyemia, pyaemia} septicemia caused by pus-forming bacteria being released from an abscess

{n: resistance} the degree of unresponsiveness of a disease-causing microorganism to antibiotics or other drugs (as in penicillin-resistant bacteria)

{n: restriction endonuclease, restriction nuclease, restriction enzyme} any of the enzymes that cut nucleic acid at specific restriction sites and produce restriction fragments; obtained from bacteria (where they cripple viral invaders); used in recombinant DNA technology

{n: reticuloendothelial system, RES} a widely distributed system consisting of all the cells able to ingest bacteria or colloidal particles etc, except for certain white blood cells

{n: rickettsial disease, rickettsiosis} infectious disease caused by ticks or mites or body lice infected with rickettsial bacteria

{n: rickettsia} any of a group of very small rod-shaped bacteria that live in biting arthropods (as ticks and mites) and cause disease in vertebrate hosts; they cause typhus and other febrile diseases in human beings

{n: ring rot bacteria, Pseudomonas solanacearum} causes brown rot in tomatoes and potatoes and tobacco etc

{n: sapremia, sapraemia} blood poisoning caused by putrefactive bacteria; results from eating putrefied matter

{n: sepsis} the presence of pus-forming bacteria or their toxins in the blood or tissues

{n: septic tank} large tank where solid matter or sewage is disintegrated by bacteria

{n: shigellosis, bacillary dysentery} an acute infection of the intestine by shigella bacteria; characterized by diarrhea and fever and abdominal pains

{n: soft rot} mushy or slimy decay of plants caused by bacteria or fungi

{n: spirillum, spirilla} any flagellated aerobic bacteria having a spirally twisted rodlike form

{n: spirillum} spirally twisted elongate rodlike bacteria usually living in stagnant water

{n: spirochete, spirochaete} parasitic or free-living bacteria; many pathogenic to humans and other animals

{n: spore} a small usually single-celled asexual reproductive body produced by many nonflowering plants and fungi and some bacteria and protozoans and that are capable of developing into a new individual without sexual fusion
"a sexual spore is formed after the fusion of gametes"

{n: staphylococcal infection} an infection with staphylococcus bacteria; usually marked by abscess formation

{n: staphylococcus, staphylococci, staph} spherical Gram-positive parasitic bacteria that tend to form irregular colonies; some cause boils or septicemia or infections

{n: starter} a culture containing yeast or bacteria that is used to start the process of fermentation or souring in making butter or cheese or dough
"to make sourdough you need a starter"

{n: sterilization, sterilisation} the procedure of making some object free of live bacteria or other microorganisms (usually by heat or chemical means)

{n: streptobacillus} any of various rod-shaped Gram-negative bacteria

{n: streptococcus, streptococci, strep} spherical Gram-positive bacteria occurring in pairs or chains; cause e.g. scarlet fever and tonsillitis

{n: streptomyces} aerobic bacteria (some of which produce the antibiotic streptomycin)

{n: sulfa drug, sulfa, sulpha, sulfonamide} antibacterial consisting of any of several synthetic organic compounds capable of inhibiting the growth of bacteria that require PABA

{n: thiobacillus} small rod-shaped bacteria living in sewage or soil and oxidizing sulfur

{n: thiobacteria, sulphur bacteria, sulfur bacteria} any bacterium of the genus Thiobacillus

{n: tobramycin, Nebcin} an antibiotic (trade name Nebcin) that is especially effective against Gram-negative bacteria

{n: tyrothricin} a mixture of antibiotics applied locally to infections caused by Gram-positive bacteria

{n: urease} an enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of urea into carbon dioxide and ammonia; is present in intestinal bacteria

{n: xanthomonad} bacteria producing yellow non-water-soluble pigments; some pathogenic for plants

{v: aerosolize, aerosolise} become dispersed as an aerosol
"the bacteria quickly aerosolised"

{v: aerosolize, aerosolise} disperse as an aerosol
"The bacteria suspension was aerosolized"

{v: agglutinate} clump together ; as of bacteria, red blood cells, etc.

{v: bacterize, bacterise} subject to the action of bacteria

{v: incubate} develop under favorable conditions, such as germs and bacteria

{v: sterilize, sterilise} make free from bacteria

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