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{adj: above-mentioned, above-named} mentioned or named earlier in the same text



{adj: above} appearing earlier in the same text
"flaws in the above interpretation"

{adj: antediluvian, antiquated, archaic} so extremely old as seeming to belong to an earlier period
"a ramshackle antediluvian tenement"
"antediluvian ideas"
"archaic laws"

{adj: anterior, prior} earlier in time

{adj: antique} made in or typical of earlier times and valued for its age
"the beautiful antique French furniture"

{adj: archaic, primitive} little evolved from or characteristic of an earlier ancestral type
"archaic forms of life"
"primitive mammals"
"the okapi is a short-necked primitive cousin of the giraffe"

{adj: archeozoic, archaeozoic} formed in the earlier of two divisions of the Precambrian era
"archeozoic life forms"

{adj: back} of an earlier date
"back issues of the magazine"

{adj: bright, smart} characterized by quickness and ease in learning
"some children are brighter in one subject than another"
"smart children talk earlier than the average"

{adj: different} unlike in nature or quality or form or degree
"took different approaches to the problem"
"came to a different conclusion"
"different parts of the country"
"on different sides of the issue"
"this meeting was different from the earlier one"
<-> same

{adj: earlier, earliest} (comparative and superlative of `early') more early than; most early
"a fashion popular in earlier times"
"his earlier work reflects the influence of his teacher"
"Verdi's earliest and most raucous opera"

{adj: former} referring to the first of two things or persons mentioned (or the earlier one or ones of several)
"the novel was made into a film in 1943 and again in 1967; I prefer the former version to the latter one"
<-> latter

{adj: incomparable, uncomparable} such that comparison is impossible; unsuitable for comparison or lacking features that can be compared
"an incomparable week of rest and pleasure"
"the computer proceeds with its incomparable logic and efficiency"
"this report is incomparable with the earlier ones because of different breakdowns of the data"
<-> comparable

{adj: long-play, long-playing} (used of records) playing at a slower speed and for a longer time than earlier records

{adj: middle} between an earlier and a later period of time
"in the middle years"
"in his middle thirties"
<-> late, early

{adj: middle} of a stage in the development of a language or literature between earlier and later stages
"Middle English is the English language from about 1100 to 1500"
"Middle Gaelic"
<-> late, early

{adj: neoclassic, neoclassical} characteristic of a revival of an earlier classical style

{adj: nonmodern} not modern; of or characteristic of an earlier time
<-> modern

{adj: past} earlier than the present time; no longer current
"time past"
"his youth is past"
"this past Thursday"
"the past year"
<-> present, future

{adj: returning, reverting} tending to return to an earlier state

{adj: slow} (used of timepieces) indicating a time earlier than the correct time
"the clock is slow"
<-> fast

{adv: above, supra} at an earlier place
"see above"
<-> below

{adv: down} from an earlier time
"the story was passed down from father to son"

{adv: earlier, before} earlier in time; previously
"I had known her before"
"as I said before"
"he called me the day before but your call had come even earlier"
"her parents had died four years earlier"
"I mentioned that problem earlier"

{adv: in the first place, earlier, in the beginning, to begin with, originally} before now
"why didn't you tell me in the first place?"

{adv: previously, antecedently} at an earlier time or formerly
"she had previously lived in Chicago"
"he was previously president of a bank"
"better than anything previously proposed"
"a previously unquestioned attitude"
"antecedently arranged"

{adv: sooner, earlier} comparatives of `soon' or `early'
"Come a little sooner, if you can"
"came earlier than I expected"

{n: Asura} earlier a god; later a demon; counterpart of Zoroastrian Ahura

{n: Bel} Babylonian god of the earth; one of the supreme triad including Anu and Ea; earlier identified with En-lil

{n: above} an earlier section of a written text
"for instructions refer to the above"

{n: adenosine deaminase, ADA} an enzyme found in mammals that can catalyze the deamination of adenosine into inosine and ammonia
"ADA deficiency can lead to one form of severe combined immunodeficiency disease"
"the gene encoding ADA was one of the earlier human genes to be isolated and cloned for study"

{n: age of consent} the minimum age for marrying without parental consent or the minimum age for consensual sexual relations; intercourse at an earlier age can result in a charge of assault or statutory rape; the age differs in different states of the Union

{n: amalgam} a combination or blend of diverse things
"his theory is an amalgam of earlier ideas"

{n: amended return} a tax return that corrects the information in an earlier return

{n: amora} one of a group of rabbis (active AD 250-500) who discussed the Mishnaic law in the law schools of Palestine and Mesopotamia where they explained and applied earlier teachings and whose discussions are recorded in the Talmud; they emphasized the study of Torah and the importance of personal action and the fulfillment of the commandments

{n: anaphora} using a pronoun or similar word instead of repeating a word used earlier

{n: atavism, reversion, throwback} a reappearance of an earlier characteristic

{n: bank statement} a periodic statement prepared by a bank for each client
"I wish my bank statement arrived earlier in the month"

{n: case law, precedent, common law} (civil law) a law established by following earlier judicial decisions

{n: cenogenesis, kenogenesis, caenogenesis, cainogenesis, kainogenesis} introduction during embryonic development of characters or structure not present in the earlier evolutionary history of the strain or species (as addition of the placenta in mammalian evolution)
<-> palingenesis

{n: counterproposal} a proposal offered as an alternative to an earlier proposal

{n: counterrevolutionist, counter-revolutionist, counterrevolutionary} a revolutionary whose aim is to reverse the changes introduced by an earlier revolution

{n: cross-examiner, cross-questioner} someone who questions a witness carefully (especially about testimony given earlier)

{n: decline, declination} a condition inferior to an earlier condition; a gradual falling off from a better state
<-> improvement

{n: earliness} quality of coming early or earlier in time
<-> lateness

{n: false saber-toothed tiger} North American cat of the Miocene and Pliocene; much earlier and less specialized than members of the genus Smiledon

{n: flashback} a transition (in literary or theatrical works or films) to an earlier event or scene that interrupts the normal chronological development of the story
<-> flash-forward

{n: flashback} an unexpected but vivid recurrence of a past experience (especially a recurrence of the effects of an hallucinogenic drug taken much earlier)

{n: follow-up, followup, reexamination, review} a subsequent examination of a patient for the purpose of monitoring earlier treatment

{n: follow-up, followup} a piece of work that exploits or builds on earlier work
"his new software is a follow-up to the programs they started with"

{n: footprint} a trace suggesting that something was once present or felt or otherwise important
"the footprints of an earlier civilization"

{n: forefather} person from an earlier time who contributed to the tradition shared by some group
"our forefathers brought forth a great nation"

{n: fossilization, fossilisation} the process of fossilizing a plant or animal that existed in some earlier age; the process of being turned to stone

{n: improvement, melioration} a condition superior to an earlier condition
"the new school represents a great improvement"
<-> decline

{n: intrusion} the forcing of molten rock into fissures or between strata of an earlier rock formation

{n: navigator} in earlier times, a person who explored by ship

{n: neoteny} an evolutionary trend to be born earlier so that development is cut off at an earlier stage and juvenile characteristics are retained in adults of the species

{n: none} a service in the Roman Catholic Church formerly read or chanted at 3 PM (the ninth hour counting from sunrise) but now somewhat earlier

{n: palimpsest} a manuscript (usually written on papyrus or parchment) on which more than one text has been written with the earlier writing incompletely erased and still visible

{n: past} a earlier period in someone's life (especially one that they have reason to keep secret)
"reporters dug into the candidate's past"

{n: period, geological period} a unit of geological time during which a system of rocks formed
"ganoid fishes swarmed during the earlier geological periods"

{n: phase IV clinical trials, phase IV} sometimes the FDA approves a drug for general use but requires the manufacturer to continue to monitor its effects; during this phase the drug may be tried on slightly different patient populations than those studied in earlier trials

{n: precedent} a subject mentioned earlier (preceding in time)

{n: precocious dentition} teething at an earlier age than expected

{n: recapitualtion} (music) the repetition of themes introduced earlier (especially when you are composing the final part of a movement)

{n: recapitulation} (music) the section of a composition or movement (especially in sonata form) in which musical themes that were introduced earlier are repeated

{n: reconsideration} a consideration of a topic (as in a meeting) with a view to changing an earlier decision

{n: reenactment} performing a role in an event that occurred at an earlier time
"the reenactment of the battle of Princeton"

{n: reenactor} a person who enacts a role in an event that occurred earlier

{n: relation back, relation} (law) the principle that an act done at a later time is deemed by law to have occurred at an earlier time
"his attorney argued for the relation back of the amended complaint to the time the initial complaint was filed"

{n: reversal, change of mind, flip-flop, turnabout, turnaround} a decision to reverse an earlier decision

{n: rollback} reducing prices back to some earlier level

{n: rudiment} the remains of a body part that was functional at an earlier stage of life
"Meckel's diverticulum is the rudiment of the embryonic yolk sac"

{n: runoff} a final election to resolve an earlier election that did not produce a winner

{n: theory of inheritance} (biology) a theory of how characteristics of one generation are derived from earlier generations

{n: upgrade} hardware that provides better performance than an earlier version did

{n: upgrade} software that provides better performance than an earlier version did

{v: abjure, recant, forswear, retract, resile} formally reject or disavow a formerly held belief, usually under pressure
"He retracted his earlier statements about his religion"
"She abjured her beliefs"

{v: anticipate} be a forerunner of or occur earlier than
"This composition anticipates Impressionism"

{v: backdate} make effective from an earlier date
"The increase in tax was backdated to January"

{v: cut back, flash back} return in time
"the film cut back to an earlier event in the story"

{v: cut short} cause to end earlier than intended
"The spontaneous applause cut the singer short"

{v: enact, reenact, act out} act out ; represent or perform as if in a play
"She reenacted what had happened earlier that day"

{v: go back, date back, date from} belong to an earlier time
"This story dates back 200 years"

{v: hark back, return, come back, recall} go back to something earlier
"This harks back to a previous remark of his"

{v: hold over} keep in a position or state from an earlier period of time

{v: intervene, step in, interfere, interpose} get involved, so as to alter or hinder an action, or through force or threat of force
"Why did the U.S. not intervene earlier in WW II?"

{v: predate, antedate, foredate} establish something as being earlier relative to something else
<-> postdate

{v: predate, precede, forego, antecede, antedate} be earlier in time ; go back further
"Stone tools precede bronze tools"
<-> postdate

{v: predecease} die before ; die earlier than
"She predeceased her husband"

{v: refer, pertain, relate, concern, come to, bear on, touch, touch on} have to do with or be relevant to
"There were lots of questions referring to her talk"
"My remark pertained to your earlier comments"

{v: reprise, reprize, repeat, recapitulate} repeat an earlier theme of a composition

{v: retreat, pull back, back out, back away, crawfish, crawfish out, pull in one's horns, withdraw} make a retreat from an earlier commitment or activity
"We'll have to crawfish out from meeting with him"
"He backed out of his earlier promise"
"The aggressive investment company pulled in its horns"

{v: tie in} be in connection with something relevant
"This ties in closely with his earlier remarks"

{v: unteach} cause to disbelieve ; teach someone the contrary of what he or she had learned earlier


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