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{adj: arduous, backbreaking, grueling, gruelling, hard, heavy, laborious, operose, punishing, toilsome} characterized by toilsome effort to the point of exhaustion; especially physical effort
"worked their arduous way up the mining valley"
"a grueling campaign"
"hard labor"
"heavy work"
"heavy going"
"spent many laborious hours on the project"
"set a punishing pace"

{adj: care-laden, heavy-laden} burdened by cares
"all ye that labor and are heavy-laden"-Matt.11:28

{adj: common, mutual} common to or shared by two or more parties
"a common friend"
"the mutual interests of management and labor"

{adj: daily, day-to-day, day-after-day, every day} occurring or done each day
"a daily record"
"day-by-day labors of thousands of men and women"- H.S.Truman
"her day-after-day behavior"
"an every day occurrence"

{adj: disenfranchised, disfranchised, voiceless, voteless} deprived of the rights of citizenship especially the right to vote
" labor was voiceless"
"disenfrenchised masses took to the streets"
<-> enfranchised

{adj: drudging, laboring, labouring, toiling} doing arduous or unpleasant work
"drudging peasants"
"the bent backs of laboring slaves picking cotton"
"toiling coal miners in the black deeps"

{adj: extensive} of agriculture; increasing productivity by using large areas with minimal outlay and labor
"producing wheat under extensive conditions"
"agriculture of the extensive type"
<-> intensive

{adj: forced} forced or compelled
"promised to abolish forced labor"

{adj: hardheaded, hard-nosed, practical, pragmatic} guided by practical experience and observation rather than theory
"a hardheaded appraisal of our position"
"a hard-nosed labor leader"
"completely practical in his approach to business"
"not ideology but pragmatic politics"

{adj: hardscrabble, marginal} of a bare living gained by great labor
"the sharecropper's hardscrabble life"
"a marginal existence"

{adj: hardscrabble} yielding little by great labor
"a hardscrabble farm"
"poor soil"

{adj: healthy, intelligent, levelheaded, level-headed, sound} exercising or showing good judgment
"healthy scepticism"
"a healthy fear of rattlesnakes"
"the healthy attitude of French laws"
"healthy relations between labor and management"
"an intelligent solution"
"a sound approach to the problem"
"sound advice"
"no sound explanation for his decision"

{adj: heavy, labored, laboured} requiring or showing effort
"heavy breathing"
"the subject made for labored reading"

{adj: incidental, incident} (sometimes followed by `to') minor or casual or subordinate in significance or nature or occurring as a chance concomitant or consequence
"incidental expenses"
"the road will bring other incidental advantages"
"extra duties incidental to the job"
"labor problems incidental to a rapid expansion"
"confusion incidental to a quick change"
<-> basic

{adj: intellectual} appealing to or using the intellect
"satire is an intellectual weapon"
"intellectual workers engaged in creative literary or artistic or scientific labor"
"has tremendous intellectual sympathy for oppressed people"
"coldly intellectual"
"sort of the intellectual type"
"intellectual literature"
<-> nonintellectual

{adj: intensive} characterized by a high degree or intensity; often used as a combining form
"the questioning was intensive"
"intensive care"
"a labor-intensive industry"

{adj: intensive} of agriculture; intended to increase productivity of a fixed area by expending more capital and labor
"intensive agriculture"
"intensive conditions"
<-> extensive

{adj: itinerant} traveling from place to place to work
"itinerant labor"
"an itinerant judge"

{adj: labor-intensive, labour-intensive} requiring a large expenditure of labor but not much capital
"cottage industries are labor intensive"

{adj: labored, laboured, strained} lacking natural ease
"a labored style of debating"

{adj: laborsaving, laboursaving} designed to replace or conserve human and especially manual labor
"laborsaving devices like washing machines"

{adj: manual} doing or requiring physical work
"manual labor"
"manual laborer"

{adj: nonproductive} not directly productive
"nonproductive labor"

{adj: organized, organised, unionized, unionised} being a member of or formed into a labor union
"organized labor"
"unionized workers"
"a unionized shop"

{adj: parasitic, parasitical, leechlike, bloodsucking} of plants or persons; having the nature or habits of a parasite or leech; living off another
"a wealthy class parasitic upon the labor of the masses"
"parasitic vines that strangle the trees"
"bloodsucking blackmailer"
"his indolent leechlike existence"

{adj: ponderous} labored and dull
"a ponderous speech"

{adj: seasonal} occurring at or dependent on a particular season
"seasonal labor"
"a seasonal rise in unemployment"
<-> year-round

{adj: soul-destroying} destructive to the spirit or soul
"soul-destroying labor"

{adj: unamusing} not amusing
"his jokes were labored and unamusing"

{adj: unearned} not gained by merit or labor or service
"accepted the unearned rewards that came his ways as well as the unearned criticism"
"unearned income"
"an unearned run"
<-> earned

{adj: unmilitary, nonmilitary} not associated with soldiers or the military
"unmilitary circles of government"
"fatigue duty involves nonmilitary labor"
<-> military

{adj: unproductive} not producing desired results
"the talks between labor and management were unproductive"

{adj: unskilled} not having or showing or requiring special skill or proficiency
"unskilled in the art of rhetoric"
"an enthusiastic but unskillful mountain climber"
"unskilled labor"
"workers in unskilled occupations are finding fewer and fewer job opportunities"
"unskilled workmanship"
<-> skilled

{adj: wage-earning, working-class} working for hourly wages rather than fixed (e.g. annual) salaries
"working-class occupations include manual as well as industrial labor"

{adv: by a long shot} by a great deal
"he is the best by a long shot"
"his labors haven't ended there--not by a long shot"

{n: American Federation of Labor and Congress of Industrial Organizations, AFL-CIO} the largest federation of North American labor unions; formed in 1955

{n: American Federation of Labor, AFL} a federation of North American labor unions that merged with the Congress of Industrial Organizations in 1955

{n: American Labor Party} a former political party in the United States; formed in 1936 in New York when labor and liberals bolted the Democratic Party

{n: Bevin, Ernest Bevin} British labor leader and statesman who played an important role in diplomacy after World War II (1884-1951)

{n: Braxton-Hicks contraction, false labor} painless contractions of the muscles of the uterus that continue throughout pregnancy with increasing frequency

{n: Bridges, Harry Bridges} United States labor leader who organized the longshoremen (1901-1990)

{n: Chavez, Cesar Chavez, Cesar Estrada Chavez} United States labor leader who organized farm workers (born 1927)

{n: Congress of Industrial Organizations, CIO} a federation of North American industrial unions that merged with the American Federation of Labor in 1955

{n: Debs, Eugene V. Debs, Eugene Victor Debs} United States labor organizer who ran for President as a socialist (1855-1926)

{n: Department of Commerce and Labor} a former executive department of the United States government; created in 1903 and split into two departments in 1913

{n: Department of Labor, Labor Department, Labor, DoL} the federal department responsible for promoting the working conditions of wage earners in the United States; created in 1913

{n: Farmer-Labor Party} a former minor political party in the United States in the early 20th century

{n: Gompers, Samuel Gompers} United States labor leader (born in England) who was president of the American Federation of Labor from 1886 to 1924 (1850-1924)

{n: Green, William Green} United States labor leader who was president of the American Federation of Labor from 1924 to 1952 and who led the struggle with the Congress of Industrial Organizations (1873-1952)

{n: Haywood, Big Bill Haywood, William Dudley Haywood} United States labor leader and militant socialist who was one of the founders of the Industrial Workers of the World (1869-1928)

{n: Hercules, Heracles, Herakles, Alcides} (classical mythology) a hero noted for his strength; performed 12 immense labors to gain immortality

{n: Hoffa, Jimmy Hoffa, James Riddle Hoffa} United States labor leader who was president of the Teamsters Union; he was jailed for trying to bribe a judge and later disappeared and is assumed to have been murdered (1913-1975)

{n: Industrial Workers of the World, IWW, I.W.W.} a former international labor union and radical labor movement in the United States; founded in Chicago in 1905 and dedicated to the overthrow of capitalism; its membership declined after World War I

{n: International Labor Organization, International Labour Organization, ILO} the United Nations agency concerned with the interests of labor

{n: Jones, Mother Jones, Mary Harris Jones} United States labor leader (born in Ireland) who helped to found the Industrial Workers of the World (1830-1930)

{n: Kurdistan Workers Party, Kurdistan Labor Pary, Partiya Karkeran Kurdistan, PPK} a Marxist-Leninist terrorist group of Kurds trying to establish an independent Kurdish state in eastern Turkey

{n: Labor Day} first Monday in September in the United States and Canada

{n: Labour Party, Labour, Labor Party, Labor} a political party formed in Great Britain in 1900; characterized by the promotion of labor's interests and the socialization of key industries

{n: Lewis, John L. Lewis, John Llewelly Lewis} United States labor leader who was president of the United Mine Workers of America from 1920 to 1960 and president of the Congress of Industrial Organizations from 1935 to 1940 (1880-1969)

{n: May Day, First of May, May 1} observed in the United States to celebrate the coming of spring; observed in Russia in honor of labor

{n: Meany, George Meany} United States labor leader who was the first president of the AFL-CIO (1894-1980)

{n: Mitchell, John Mitchell} United States labor leader; president of the United Mine Workers of America from 1898 to 1908 (1870-1919)

{n: National Labor Relations Board, NLRB} an independent agency of the United States government charged with mediating disputes between management and labor unions

{n: Nemean lion} (Greek mythology) an enormous lion strangled by Hercules as the first of his 12 labors

{n: Occupational Safety and Health Administration, OSHA} a government agency in the Department of Labor to maintain a safe and healthy work environment

{n: Reed, John Reed} United States journalist who reported on the October Revolution from Petrograd in 1917; founded the Communist Labor Party in America in 1919; is buried in the Kremlin in Moscow (1887-1920)

{n: Revolutionary Proletarian Nucleus, Revolutionary Proletarian Initiative Nuclei, NIPR} a clandestine group of leftist extremists who oppose Italy's labor policies and foreign policy; responsible for bombing building in the historic center of Rome from 2000 to 2002

{n: Secretary of Commerce and Labor} head of a former executive department created in 1903 and divided into two departments in 1913

{n: Secretary of Labor, Labor Secretary} the person who holds the secretaryship of the Department of Labor
"the first Labor Secretary was William B. Wilson who was appointed by President Wilson"

{n: Secretary of Labor, Labor Secretary} the position of the head of the Department of Labor
"the post of Labor Secretary was created in 1913"

{n: Socialist Labor Party} a political party in the United States; formed in 1874 to advocate the peaceful introduction of socialism

{n: Solzhenitsyn, Alexander Isayevich Solzhenitsyn, Aleksandr I. Solzhenitsyn} Soviet writer and political dissident whose novels exposed the brutality of Soviet labor camps (born in 1918)

{n: Walesa, Lech Walesa} Polish labor leader and statesman (born in 1943)

{n: arbitration} (law) the hearing and determination of a dispute by an impartial referee agreed to by both parties (often used to settle disputes between labor and management)

{n: asynclitism, obliquity} the presentation during labor of the head of the fetus at an abnormal angle

{n: birth pangs, labor pains, labour pains} a regularly recurrent spasm of pain that is characteristic of childbirth

{n: bond servant} someone bound to labor without wages

{n: bonded labor} an illegal practice in which employers give high-interest loans to workers whose entire families then labor at low wages to pay off the debt

{n: bracero} a Mexican laborer who worked in the United States on farms and railroads in order to ease labor shortages during World War II

{n: childbirth-preparation class} a course that teaches pregnant women to use breathing and concentration and exercise techniques to use during labor

{n: corvee} unpaid labor (as for the maintenance of roads) required by a lord of his vassals in lieu of taxes

{n: cost} the total spent for goods or services including money and time and labor

{n: craft union} a labor union whose membership is restricted to workers in a particular craft

{n: deckhand, roustabout} a member of a ship's crew who performs manual labor

{n: depersonalization, depersonalisation, reification} representing a human being as a physical thing deprived of personal qualities or individuality
"according to Marx, treating labor as a commodity exemplified the reification of the individual"

{n: direct action} a protest action by labor or minority groups to obtain their demands

{n: dyspnea, dyspnoea} difficult or labored respiration

{n: earner, wage earner} someone who earn wages in return for their labor

{n: effacement} shortening of the uterine cervix and thinning of its walls as it is dilated during labor

{n: fatigue duty, fatigue} labor of a nonmilitary kind done by soldiers (cleaning or digging or draining or so on)
"the soldiers were put on fatigue to teach them a lesson"
"they were assigned to kitchen fatigues"

{n: fatigues} military uniform worn by military personnel when doing menial labor

{n: featherbedding} the practice (usually by a labor union) of requiring an employer to hire more workers than are required

{n: full employment} the economic condition when everyone who wishes to work at the going wage rate for their type of labor is employed

{n: fuss, trouble, bother, hassle} an angry disturbance
"he didn't want to make a fuss"
"they had labor trouble"
"a spot of bother"

{n: gasp, pant} a short labored intake of breath with the mouth open
"she gave a gasp and fainted"

{n: handicraft, handcraft, handiwork, handwork} a work produced by hand labor

{n: incompetent cervix} (obstetrics) uterine cervix that becomes dilated before term and without labor often resulting in miscarriage or premature birth

{n: induction of labor} (obstetrics) inducing the childbirth process artificially by administering oxytocin or by puncturing the amniotic sac

{n: industrial union, vertical union} a labor union that admits all workers in a given industry irrespective of their craft

{n: labor coach, monitrice} assistant (often the father) who provides support for a woman in labor by encouraging her to use techniques learned in childbirth-preparation classes

{n: labor contract, labor agreement, collective agreement} contract between labor and management government wages and benefits and working conditions

{n: labor force, labor pool} the source of trained people from which workers can be hired

{n: labor leader} a leader of a labor movement

{n: labor market} the market in which workers compete for jobs and employers compete for workers

{n: labor movement, trade union movement, labor} an organized attempt by workers to improve their status by united action (particularly via labor unions) or the leaders of this movement

{n: labor of love, labour of love} productive work performed voluntarily without material reward or compensation

{n: labor pain} pain and discomfort associated with contractions of the uterus during labor

{n: labor resources} resources of available manpower

{n: labor, labour, toil} productive work (especially physical work done for wages)
"his labor did not require a great deal of skill"

{n: labor, labour, working class, proletariat} a social class comprising those who do manual labor or work for wages
"there is a shortage of skilled labor in this field"

{n: laborer, manual laborer, labourer, jack} someone who works with their hands; someone engaged in manual labor

{n: loading} the labor of putting a load of something on or in a vehicle or ship or container etc.
"the loading took 2 hours"
<-> unloading

{n: logistics} handling an operation that involves providing labor and materials be supplied as needed

{n: low-birth-weight baby, low-birth-weight infant} an infant born weighing less than 5.5 pounds (2500 grams) regardless of gestational age
"a low-birth-weight infant is at risk for developing lack of oxygen during labor"

{n: machinery} a system of means and activities whereby a social institution functions
"the complex machinery of negotiation"
"the machinery of command labored and brought forth an order"

{n: manual labor, manual labour} labor done with the hands

{n: natural childbirth} labor and childbirth without medical intervention; no drugs are given to relieve pain or aid the birth process
"natural childbirth is considered the safest for the baby"

{n: open shop} a company whose workers are hired without regard to their membership in a labor union

{n: organized labor} employees who are represented by a labor union

{n: organizer, organiser, labor organizer} someone who enlists workers to join a union

{n: oxytocic, oxytocic drug} a drug that induces labor by stimulating contractions of the muscles of the uterus

{n: paracervical block} regional anesthesia resulting from the injection of a local anesthetic on each side of the cervix; used during labor and childbirth

{n: parturiency, labor, labour, confinement, lying-in, travail, childbed} concluding state of pregnancy; from the onset of labor to the birth of a child
"she was in labor for six hours"

{n: perestroika} an economic policy adopted in the former Soviet Union; intended to increase automation and labor efficiency but it led eventually to the end of central planning in the Russian economy

{n: picket} a protester posted by a labor organization outside a place of work

{n: plant, works, industrial plant} buildings for carrying on industrial labor
"they built a large plant to manufacture automobiles"

{n: premature labor, premature labour} labor beginning prior to the 37th week of gestation

{n: production cost} combined costs of raw material and labor incurred in producing goods

{n: productivity} (economics) the ratio of the quantity and quality of units produced to the labor per unit of time

{n: puissance} power to influence or coerce
"the puissance of the labor vote"

{n: relaxin} hormone secreted by the corpus luteum during the last days of pregnancy; relaxes the pelvic ligaments and prepares the uterus for labor

{n: self-organization, self-organisation} organizing yourself (especially organizing your own labor union)

{n: servitude} state of subjection to an owner or master or forced labor imposed as punishment
"penal servitude"

{n: sister} a female person who is a fellow member of a sorority or labor union or other group
"none of her sisters would betray her"

{n: stranglehold, chokehold, throttlehold} complete power over a person or situation
"corporations have a stranglehold on the media"
"the president applied a chokehold to labor disputes that inconvenienced the public"

{n: supply-side economics} the school of economic theory that stresses the costs of production as a means of stimulating the economy; advocates policies that raise capital and labor output by increasing the incentive to produce

{n: syndicalism} a radical political movement that advocates bringing industry and government under the control of labor unions

{n: takeaway} a concession made by a labor union to a company that is trying to lower its expenditures

{n: undertaking, project, task, labor} any piece of work that is undertaken or attempted
"he prepared for great undertakings"

{n: union card} a card certifying membership in a labor union

{n: union representative} a representative for a labor union

{n: union, labor union, trade union, trades union, brotherhood} an organization of employees formed to bargain with the employer
"you have to join the union in order to get a job"

{n: unionism, trade unionism} the system or principles and theory of labor unions

{n: unionization, unionisation} act of forming labor unions
"the issue underlying the strike was unionization"

{n: unloading} the labor of taking a load of something off of or out of a vehicle or ship or container etc.
<-> loading

{n: uterine contraction} a rhythmic tightening in labor of the upper uterine musculature that contracts the size of the uterus and pushes the fetus toward the birth canal

{n: work animal} an animal trained for and used for heavy labor

{n: work-clothing, work-clothes} clothing worn for doing manual labor

{n: workhorse} a horse used for plowing and hauling and other heavy labor

{n: workhouse} a poorhouse where able-bodied poor are compelled to labor

{n: workman, workingman, working man, working person} an employee who performs manual or industrial labor

{n: yellow-dog contract} a labor contract (now illegal) whereby the employee agrees not to join a trade union

{v: back, endorse, indorse, plump for, plunk for, support} be behind ; approve of
"He plumped for the Labor Party"
"I backed Kennedy in 1960"

{v: fail} become bankrupt or insolvent ; fail financially and close
"The toy company went bankrupt after the competition hired cheap Mexican labor"
"A number of banks failed that year"

{v: fight, struggle} make a strenuous or labored effort
"She struggled for years to survive without welfare"
"He fought for breath"

{v: labor, labour, toil, fag, travail, grind, drudge, dig, moil} work hard
"She was digging away at her math homework"
"Lexicographers drudge all day long"

{v: labor, labour} undergo the efforts of childbirth

{v: serve, do} spend time in prison or in a labor camp
"He did six years for embezzlement"

{v: tug, labor, labour, push, drive} strive and make an effort to reach a goal
"She tugged for years to make a decent living"
"We have to push a little to make the deadline!"
"She is driving away at her doctoral thesis"

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