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{adj: Nigerian, Nigerien} of or relating to the people of Nigeria
"a Nigerian novelist won the Nobel Prize for literature this year"

{adj: adolescent, teen, teenage, teenaged} being of the age 13 through 19
"teenage mothers"
"the teen years"

{adj: advanced, ripe} far along in time
"a man of advanced age"
"advanced in years"
"a ripe old age"
"the ripe age of 90"

{adj: aged, elderly, older, senior} advanced in years; (`aged' is pronounced as two syllables)
"aged members of the society"
"elderly residents could remember the construction of the first skyscraper"
"senior citizen"

{adj: aged, of age} having attained a specific age; (`aged' is pronounced as one syllable)
"aged ten"
"ten years of age"

{adj: aggregate, aggregated, aggregative, mass} gathered or tending to gather into a mass or whole
"aggregate expenses include expenses of all divisions combined for the entire year"
"the aggregated amount of indebtedness"

{adj: ago, agone} gone by; or in the past
"two years ago"
"`agone' is an archaic word for `ago'"

{adj: annual, one-year} completing its life cycle within a year
"a border of annual flowering plants"
<-> biennial, perennial

{adj: annual, yearly} occurring or payable every year
"an annual trip to Paris"
"yearly medical examinations"
"annual (or yearly) income"

{adj: banner} unusually good; outstanding
"a banner year for the company"

{adj: beardless, smooth-faced} lacking hair on the face
"a smooth-faced boy of 14 years"

{adj: best} (superlative of `good') having the most positive qualities
"the best film of the year"
"the best solution"
"the best time for planting"
"wore his best suit"
<-> worst

{adj: bicentennial, bicentenary} of or relating to or completing a period of 200 years
"bicentennial celebration"

{adj: biennial, biyearly} occurring every second year
"they met at biennial conventions"

{adj: biennial, two-year} having a life cycle lasting two seasons
"a biennial life cycle"
"parsnips and carrots are biennial plants often grown as annuals"
<-> perennial, annual

{adj: boffo} resoundingly successful and popular
"for years he was a boffo box office certainty"

{adj: bootless, fruitless, futile, sleeveless, vain} unproductive of success
"a fruitless search"
"futile years after her artistic peak"
"a sleeveless errand"
"a vain attempt"

{adj: bountiful, plentiful} producing in abundance
"the bountiful earth"
"a plentiful year"
"fruitful soil"

{adj: brave, braw, gay} brightly colored and showy
"girls decked out in brave new dresses"
"brave banners flying"
"`braw' is a Scottish word"
"a dress a bit too gay for her years"
"birds with gay plumage"

{adj: centenarian} being at least 100 years old

{adj: centennial, centenary} of or relating to or completing a period of 100 years
"centennial celebration"

{adj: chivalric, knightly, medieval} characteristic of the time of chivalry and knighthood in the Middle Ages
"chivalric rites"
"the knightly years"

{adj: clean} free of drugs
"after a long dependency on heroin she has been clean for 4 years"

{adj: closing} final or ending
"the closing stages of the election"
"the closing weeks of the year"
"the closing scene of the film"
"closing remarks"
<-> opening

{adj: comparable, corresponding, like} conforming in every respect
"boxes with corresponding dimensions"
"the like period of the preceding year"

{adj: complacent, self-satisfied, self-complacent} contented to a fault with oneself or one's actions
"he had become complacent after years of success"
"his self-satisfied dignity"

{adj: consequential, eventful} having important issues or results
"the year's only really consequential legislation"
"an eventful decision"

{adj: corresponding, proportionate, in proportion to} agreeing in amount, magnitude, or degree
"the figures are large but the corresponding totals next year will be larger"

{adj: dirt, ungraded} (of roads) not leveled or drained; unsuitable for all year travel

{adj: disruptive, riotous, troubled, tumultuous, turbulent} characterized by unrest or disorder or insubordination
"effects of the struggle will be violent and disruptive"
"riotous times"
"these troubled areas"
"the tumultuous years of his administration"
"a turbulent and unruly childhood"

{adj: dowdy, frumpy, frumpish} primly out of date
"nothing so frumpish as last year's gambling game"

{adj: dragging} marked by a painfully slow and effortful manner
"it was a strange dragging approach"
"years of dragging war"

{adj: dry, teetotal} practicing complete abstinence from alcoholic beverages
"he's been dry for ten years"
"no thank you; I happen to be teetotal"

{adj: effective, good, in effect, in force} exerting force or influence
"the law is effective immediately"
"a warranty good for two years"
"the law is already in effect (or in force)"

{adj: elongated, extended, lengthened, prolonged} drawn out or made longer spatially
"Picasso's elongated Don Quixote"
"lengthened skirts are fashionable this year"
"the extended airport runways can accommodate larger planes"
"a prolonged black line across the page"

{adj: especial, exceptional, particular, special} surpassing what is common or usual or expected
"he paid especial attention to her"
"exceptional kindness"
"a matter of particular and unusual importance"
"a special occasion"
"a special reason to confide in her"
"what's so special about the year 2000?"

{adj: evergreen} (of plants and shrubs) bearing foliage throughout the year
<-> deciduous

{adj: faithful} steadfast in affection or allegiance
"years of faithful service"
"faithful employees"
"we do not doubt that England has a faithful patriot in the Lord Chancellor"
<-> unfaithful

{adj: fewer} (comparative of `few' used with count nouns) quantifier meaning a smaller number of
"fewer birds came this year"
"the birds are fewer this year"
"fewer trains were late"
<-> more

{adj: five-year-old} five years of age

{adj: formative} susceptible to alteration by development and experience
"formative years"

{adj: four-year-old} four years of age

{adj: freshman, first-year} used of a person in the first year of an experience (especially in United States high school or college)
"a freshman senator"
"freshman year in high school or college"

{adj: half-time} involving half the standard or customary time for an activity
"he had two years of half-time training"

{adj: hardly a} very few
"hardly a man is now alive who remembers that famous date and year"

{adj: heliacal, heliac} pertaining to or near the sun; especially the first rising of a star after and last setting before its invisibility owing to its conjunction with the sun
"the heliacal rising of the Dog Star"
"the heliacal or Sothic year is determined by the heliacal rising of Sothis (the Egyptian name for the Dog Star)"

{adj: hollow} not solid; having a space or gap or cavity
"a hollow wall"
"a hollow tree"
"hollow cheeks"
"his face became gaunter and more hollow with each year"
<-> solid

{adj: imbecile, imbecilic, idiotic} having a mental age of three to seven years

{adj: intercalary} having a day or month inserted to make the calendar year correspond to the solar year: "Feb. 29 is an intercalary day"
"a leap year is an intercalary year"

{adj: intervening} occurring or falling between events or points in time
"so much had happened during the intervening years"

{adj: junior, third-year, next-to-last} used of the third or next to final year in United States high school or college
"the junior class"
"a third-year student"

{adj: lean} not profitable or prosperous
"a lean year"

{adj: legitimate, logical} based on known statements or events or conditions
"rain was a logical expectation, given the time of year"

{adj: less} (comparative of `little' usually used with mass nouns) a quantifier meaning not as great in amount or degree
"of less importance"
"less time to spend with the family"
"a shower uses less water"
"less than three years old"
<-> more

{adj: long-dated} of a gilt-edged security; having more than 15 years to run before redemption

{adj: loved} held dear
"his loved companion of many years"
<-> unloved

{adj: manipulative} skillful in influencing or controlling others to your own advantage
"the early manipulative techniques of a three-year-old child"

{adj: median, average} relating to or constituting the middle value of an ordered set of values (or the average of the middle two in a set with an even number of values)
"the median value of 17, 20, and 36 is 20"
"the median income for the year was $15,000"

{adj: middle-aged} being roughly between 45 and 65 years old

{adj: middle} between an earlier and a later period of time
"in the middle years"
"in his middle thirties"
<-> late, early

{adj: millennial, millennian} relating to a millennium or span of a thousand years

{adj: monestrous, monoestrous} having one estrous cycle per year

{adj: moronic} having a mental age of between eight and twelve years

{adj: new} not of long duration; having just (or relatively recently) come into being or been made or acquired or discovered
"a new law"
"new cars"
"a new comet"
"a new friend"
"a new year"
"the New World"
<-> old

{adj: new} other than the former one(s); different
"they now have a new leaders"
"my new car is four years old but has only 15,000 miles on it"
"ready to take a new direction"

{adj: nonaddictive} not causing or characterized by addiction
"for years tobacco companies have contended that tobacco is nonaddictive"
<-> addictive

{adj: nonagenarian} being from 90 to 99 years old
"the nonagenarian inhabitants of the nursing home"

{adj: octogenarian} being from 80 to 89 years old

{adj: off} below a satisfactory level
"an off year for tennis"
"his performance was off"

{adj: one-year-old} one year of age

{adj: past} earlier than the present time; no longer current
"time past"
"his youth is past"
"this past Thursday"
"the past year"
<-> present, future

{adj: pathetic, ridiculous, silly} inspiring scornful pity
"how silly an ardent and unsuccessful wooer can be especially if he is getting on in years"- Dashiell Hammett

{adj: planetal, planetary} of or relating to or resembling the physical or orbital characteristics of a planet or the planets
"planetary motion"
"planetary year"

{adj: polyestrous, polyoestrous} having more than one period of estrus per year

{adj: possible} capable of happening or existing
"a breakthrough may be possible next year"
"anything is possible"
"warned of possible consequences"
<-> impossible

{adj: productive} producing or capable of producing (especially abundantly)
"productive farmland"
"his productive years"
"a productive collaboration"
<-> unproductive

{adj: quiet} characterized by an absence or near absence of agitation or activity
"a quiet life"
"a quiet throng of onlookers"
"quiet peace-loving people"
"the factions remained quiet for almost 10 years"
<-> unquiet

{adj: reportable} meriting report
"years of research produced no reportable results"

{adj: same} closely similar or comparable in kind or quality or quantity or degree
"curtains the same color as the walls"
"two girls of the same age"
"mother and son have the same blue eyes"
"animals of the same species"
"the same rules as before"
"two boxes having the same dimensions"
"the same day next year"
<-> different

{adj: scholastic} of or relating to schools
"scholastic year"

{adj: seasonal} occurring at or dependent on a particular season
"seasonal labor"
"a seasonal rise in unemployment"
<-> year-round

{adj: semiannual, biannual, biyearly} occurring or payable twice each year

{adj: senior, fourth-year} used of the fourth and final year in United States high school or college
"the senior prom"

{adj: sexagenarian} being from 60 to 69 years old
"the sexagenarian population is growing"

{adj: short-dated} of a gilt-edged security; having less than 5 years to run before redemption

{adj: signal} notably out of the ordinary
"the year saw one signal triumph for the Labour party"

{adj: skilled} having or showing or requiring special skill
"only the most skilled gymnasts make an Olympic team"
"a skilled surgeon has many years of training and experience"
"a skilled reconstruction of her damaged elbow"
"a skilled trade"
<-> unskilled

{adj: some} relatively many but unspecified in number
"they were here for some weeks"
"we did not meet again for some years"

{adj: sophomore, second-year} used of the second year in United States high school or college
"the sophomore class"
"his sophomore year"

{adj: suffrutescent} of a plant; having a woody base that does not die down each year

{adj: supernormal} exceeding the normal or average
"years of supernormal employment during the war"
"a phase of supernormal excitability"

{adj: telescoped, shortened} shortened by or as if by means of parts that slide one within another or are crushed one into another
"a miracle that anyone survived in the telescoped cars"
"years that seemed telescoped like time in a dream"

{adj: three-year-old} three years of age

{adj: tricentenary, tricentennial} of or relating to or completing a period of 300 years

{adj: triennial} occurring every third year or lasting 3 years

{adj: tropical} of or relating to the tropics, or either tropic
"tropical year"

{adj: two-year-old} two years of age

{adj: typical} exhibiting the qualities or characteristics that identify a group or kind or category
"a typical American girl"
"a typical suburban community"
"the typical car owner drives 10,000 miles a year"
"a painting typical of the Impressionist school"
"a typical romantic poem"
"a typical case of arteritis"
<-> atypical

{adj: unblinking} showing no visible emotion
"stood unblinking and accepted a sentence of a year"

{adj: undomesticated} unaccustomed to home life
"after years of marriage he remained essentially undomesticated"

{adj: unreleased} not (or not yet) made available for distribution or publication
"someone leaked the unreleased announcement"
"a film that remained unreleased for years"

{adj: unsold} not disposed of by purchase
"the house has been on the market almost a year and is still unsold"
<-> sold

{adj: vicennial} occurring once every 20 years

{adj: worst} (superlative of `bad') most wanting in quality or value or condition
"the worst player on the team"
"the worst weather of the year"
<-> best

{adj: year-end} taking place at the close of a fiscal year
"year-end audit"

{adj: year-round, year-around} operating or continuing throughout the year
"a year-round resort"
"a year-round job"
<-> seasonal

{adj: yearlong} lasting through a year
"attending yearlong courses"
{adv: AD, A.D., anno Domini} in the Christian era; used before dates after the supposed year Christ was born
"in AD 200"

{adv: BC, B.C., before Christ} before the Christian era; used following dates before the supposed year Christ was born
"in 200 BC"

{adv: aboard} part of a group
"Bill's been aboard for three years now"

{adv: ago} in the past
"long ago"
"sixty years ago my grandfather came to the U.S."

{adv: along} to a more advanced state
"the work is moving along"
"well along in their research"
"hurrying their education along"
"getting along in years"

{adv: amazingly, surprisingly, astonishingly} in an amazing manner; to everyone's surprise
"amazingly, he finished medical school in three years"

{adv: annually, yearly, every year, each year} without missing a year
"they travel to China annually"

{adv: apart} away from another or others
"they grew apart over the years"
"kept apart from the group out of shyness"
"decided to live apart"

{adv: apart} separated or at a distance in place or position or time
"These towns are many miles apart"
"stood with his legs apart"
"born two years apart"

{adv: approximately, about, close to, just about, some, roughly, more or less, around, or so} (of quantities) imprecise but fairly close to correct
"lasted approximately an hour"
"in just about a minute"
"he's about 30 years old"
"I've had about all I can stand"
"we meet about once a month"
"some forty people came"
"weighs around a hundred pounds"
"roughly $3,000"
"holds 3 gallons, more or less"
"20 or so people were at the party"

{adv: away} indicating continuing action; continuously or steadily
"he worked away at the project for more than a year"
"the child kept hammering away as if his life depended on it"

{adv: behind, behindhand, in arrears} in debt
"he fell behind with his mortgage payments"
"a month behind in the rent"
"a company that has been run behindhand for years"
"in arrears with their utility bills"

{adv: biannually} twice a year
"we hold our big sale biannually"

{adv: biennially, biyearly} every two years
"this festival takes places biennially"

{adv: centennially} every hundred years; once in a century
"the birthday of this city is being celebrated centennially"

{adv: demandingly} in a demanding manner
"he became demandingly dominant over the years"

{adv: earlier, before} earlier in time; previously
"I had known her before"
"as I said before"
"he called me the day before but your call had come even earlier"
"her parents had died four years earlier"
"I mentioned that problem earlier"

{adv: fourfold, four times} by a factor of four
"the price of gasoline has increased fourfold over the past two years"

{adv: half-yearly} every half year, every six months

{adv: hardly, scarcely} almost not
"he hardly ever goes fishing"
"he was hardly more than sixteen years old"
"they scarcely ever used the emergency generator"

{adv: hence} from this time
"a year hence it will be forgotten"

{adv: honorably, honourably} with honor
"he was honorably discharged after many years of service"
<-> dishonorably

{adv: injudiciously} in an injudicious manner
"these intelligence tests were used injudiciously for many years"
<-> judiciously

{adv: irreverently} in an irreverent manner
"in the seventeenth century England had known fifty years of doctrinal quarrels and civil war; clergymen had been turned from their cures, and churches irreverently used"

{adv: numerically} in number; with regard to numbers
"in ten years' time the Oxbridge mathematicians, scientists, and engineers will not be much more significant numerically than the Oxbridge medical schools are now"

{adv: oversea, overseas} beyond or across the sea
"He lived overseas for many years"

{adv: per annum, p.a., per year, each year, annually} by the year; every year (usually with reference to a sum of money paid or received)
"he earned $100,000 per annum"
"we issue six volumes per annum"

{adv: perceptibly, noticeably, observably} in a noticeable manner
"he changed noticeably over the years"
<-> imperceptibly

{adv: presentably} in a presentable manner
"years ago in her white-painted infancy it must have hung presentably on the deck of some luxury liner"

{adv: productively, fruitfully, profitably} in a productive way
"they worked together productively for two years"
<-> fruitlessly, unproductively, unprofitably

{adv: quixotically} in a quixotic manner
"sent to jail for two years, he has quixotically refused to clear himself by betraying his colleagues"

{adv: reportedly} according to reports or other information
"she was reportedly his mistress for many years"

{adv: round, around} from beginning to end; throughout
"It rains all year round on Skye"
"frigid weather the year around"

{adv: semiannually, biyearly} twice a year

{adv: sevenfold} seven times
"the population of this village increased sevenfold in the past 100 years"

{adv: seventhly} in the seventh place
"seventhly, you have no right to cancel the lease in mid-year"

{adv: there, at that place, in that location} in or at that place
"they have lived there for years"
"it's not there"
"that man there"
<-> here

{adv: threefold, three times} by a factor of three
"our rent increased threefold in the past five years"

{adv: twofold, two times} by a factor of two
"the price increased twofold last year"

{adv: uninterruptedly} without interruption
"this pleasant state of affairs had continued peacefully and uninterruptedly for many years"

{n: A level} the advanced level of a subject taken in school (usually two years after O level)

{n: Ab, Av} the eleventh month of the civil year; the fifth month of the ecclesiastical year in the Jewish calendar (in July and August)

{n: Adapid, Adapid group} extinct small mostly diurnal lower primates that fed on leaves and fruit; abundant in North America and Europe 30 to 50 million years ago; their descendents probably include the lemurs; some authorities consider them ancestral to anthropoids but others consider them only cousins

{n: Adar} the sixth month of the civil year; the twelfth month of the ecclesiastic year in the Jewish calendar (in February and March)

{n: Aegyptopithecus} extinct primate of about 38 million years ago; fossils found in Egypt

{n: Ahuehuete, Tule tree} Mexico's most famous tree; a giant specimen of Montezuma cypress more than 2,000 years old with a girth of 165 feet at Santa Maria del Tule
"some say the Tule tree is the world's largest single biomass"

{n: Algeripithecus minutus} tiny (150 to 300 grams) extinct primate of 46 to 50 million years ago; fossils found in Algeria; considered by some authorities the leading candidate for the first anthropoid

{n: Altair} double star 15.7 light years from Earth; the brightest star in the Aquila constellation

{n: American agave, Agave americana} widely cultivated American monocarpic plant with greenish-white flowers on a tall stalk; blooms only after ten to twenty years and then dies

{n: Archean, Archean eon, Archean aeon, Archeozoic, Archaeozoic, Archeozoic eon, Archaeozoic aeon} the time from 3,800 million years to 2,500 million years ago; earth's crust formed; unicellular organisms are earliest forms of life

{n: Arcturus} the 4th brightest star and the brightest star in the constellation Bootes; 36 light-years from Earth

{n: Armenia, Republic of Armenia, Hayastan} a landlocked republic in southwestern Asia; formerly an Asian soviet; modern Armenia is but a fragment of ancient Armenia which was one of the world's oldest civilizations; throughout 2500 years the Armenian people have been invaded and oppressed by their neighbors

{n: Artemision at Ephesus} the large temple of the Greek goddess Artemis which was begun at Ephesus in 541 BC and completed 220 years later; the temple was destroyed by the Goths in 262

{n: Augeas} (Greek mythology) the mythical Greek king who for 30 years did not clean his stables which contained his vast herd of cattle

{n: Australia, Commonwealth of Australia} a nation occupying the whole of the Australian continent; aboriginal tribes are thought to have migrated from southeastern Asia 20,000 years ago; first Europeans were British convicts sent there as a penal colony

{n: Australopithecus afarensis} fossils found in Ethiopia; from 3.5 to 4 million years ago

{n: Australopithecus africanus} gracile hominid of southern Africa; from about 3 million years ago

{n: Australopithecus boisei} large-toothed hominid of eastern Africa; from 1 to 2 million years ago

{n: Australopithecus robustus} large-toothed hominid of southern Africa; from 1.5 to 2 million years ago; formerly Paranthropus

{n: Avicenna, ibn-Sina, Abu Ali al-Husain ibn Abdallah ibn Sina} Arabian physician and influential Islamic philosopher; his interpretation of Aristotle influenced St. Thomas Aquinas; writings on medicine were important for almost 500 years (980-1037)

{n: Babinski, Babinski reflex, Babinski sign} extension upward of the toes when the sole of the foot is stroked firmly on the outer side from the heel to the front; normal in infants under the age of two years but a sign of brain or spinal cord injury in older persons

{n: Bachelor of Laws, LLB} a three-year law degree

{n: Bartle Frere, genus Bartle-Frere, green dinosaur} a living fossil or so-called `green dinosaur'; genus or subfamily of primitive nut-bearing trees thought to have died out 50 million years ago; a single specimen found in 1994 on Mount Bartle Frere in eastern Australia; not yet officially named

{n: Belmont Stakes} an annual race for three-year-old horses; held on Long Island at Elmont, New York

{n: Budge, Don Budge, John Donald Budge} United States tennis player who in 1938 was the first to win the Australian and French and English and United States singles championship in the same year (1915-2000)

{n: Calypso} (Greek mythology) the sea nymph who detained Odysseus for seven years

{n: Cambrian, Cambrian period} from 544 million to about 500 million years ago; marine invertebrates

{n: Canopus} supergiant star 650 light years from Earth; second brightest star in the sky

{n: Carboniferous, Carboniferous period} from 345 million to 280 million years ago

{n: Cenozoic, Cenozoic era, Age of Mammals} approximately the last 63 million years

{n: Charles, Charles VII} King of France who began his reign with most of northern France under English control; after the intervention of Jeanne d'Arc the French were able to defeat the English and end the Hundred Years' War (1403-1461)

{n: Christendom, Christianity} the collective body of Christians throughout the world and history (found predominantly in Europe and the Americas and Australia)
"for a thousand years the Roman Catholic Church was the principal church of Christendom"

{n: Christian era, Common era} the time period beginning with the supposed year of Christ's birth

{n: Christmas box} a present given at Christmas for services during the year

{n: Chronoperates paradoxus} shrew-sized protomammal from the Alberta region of Canada; from about 55 million years ago (much more recent than other mammal-like reptiles)

{n: Civil List} a sum of money voted by British Parliament each year for the expenses of the British royal family

{n: Clifford trust, grantor trust} a trust established to shift the income to someone who is taxed at a lower rate than the grantor for a period of 10 years or more

{n: Colossus of Rhodes} a huge bronze statue of the sun god Helios that was built around 285 BC and that stood beside the harbor entrance on the island of Rhodes for about 50 years before it was toppled by an earthquake

{n: Connolly, Maureen Catherine Connolly, Little Mo Connolly} United States tennis player who was the first woman to win the United States, British, French, and Australian championships in the same year (1953) (1934-1969)

{n: Crecy, battle of Crecy} the first decisive battle of the Hundred Years' War; in 1346 the English under Edward III defeated the French under Philip of Valois

{n: Cretaceous, Cretaceous period} from 135 million to 63 million years ago; end of the age of reptiles; appearance of modern insects and flowering plants

{n: December, Dec} the last (12th) month of the year

{n: Denebola} a star in Leo approximately 43 light years from Earth

{n: Devonian, Devonian period, Age of Fishes} from 405 million to 345 million years ago; dominance of fishes and appearance of amphibians and ammonites

{n: Dhu'l-Hijja, Dhu'l-Hijjah, Dhu al-Hijja, Dhu al-Hijjah} the twelfth month of the Islamic calendar and the season of the haj; has one extra day in leap years

{n: Dinesen, Isak Dinesen, Blixen, Karen Blixen, Baroness Karen Blixen} Danish writer who lived in Kenya for 19 years and is remembered for her writings about Africa (1885-1962)

{n: Edward, Black Prince} son of Edward III who defeated the French at Crecy and Poitiers in the Hundred Years' War (1330-1376)

{n: Edward, Edward III} son of Edward II and King of England from 1327-1377; his claim to the French throne provoked the Hundred Years' War; his reign was marked by an epidemic of the Black Plague and by the emergence of the House of Commons as the powerful arm of British Parliament (1312-1377)

{n: Eiffel Tower} a wrought iron tower 300 meters high that was constructed in Paris in 1889; for many years it was the tallest man-made structure

{n: El Nino southern oscillation} a more intense El Nino that occurs every few years when the welling up of cold nutrient-rich water does not occur; kills plankton and fish and affects weather patterns

{n: Elul, Ellul} the twelfth month of the civil year; the sixth month of the ecclesiastical year in the Jewish calendar (in August and September)

{n: Eocene, Eocene epoch} from 58 million to 40 million years ago; presence of modern mammals

{n: Ferdinand III} Holy Roman Emperor and king of Hungary and Bohemia who signed the Peace of Westphalia ending the Thirty Years' War (1608-1657)

{n: Fouquieria, genus Fouquieria} resinous succulent trees or shrubs of desert and semidesert regions of southwestern United States that are leafless most of the year

{n: Frederick II, Frederick the Great} king of Prussia from 1740 to 1786; brought Prussia military prestige by winning the War of the Austrian Succession and the Seven Years' War (1712-1786)

{n: Frederick William, Great Elector} the Elector of Brandenburg who rebuilt his domain after its destruction during the Thirty Years' War (1620-1688)

{n: Gregorian calendar, New Style calendar} the solar calendar now in general use, introduced by Gregory XIII in 1582 to correct an error in the Julian calendar by suppressing 10 days, making Oct 5 be called Oct 15, and providing that only centenary years divisible by 400 should be leap years; it was adopted by Great Britain and the American colonies in 1752

{n: Gurkha} a member of the Nepalese force that has been part of the British army for 200 years; known for fierceness in combat

{n: Gustavus, Gustavus II, Gustavus Adolphus} king of Sweden whose victories in battle made Sweden a European power; his domestic reforms made Sweden a modern state; in 1630 he intervened on the Protestant side of the Thirty Years' War and was killed in the battle of Lutzen (1594-1632)

{n: Hadean, Hadean time, Hadean eon, Hadean aeon, Priscoan, Priscoan eon, Priscoan aeon} the earliest eon in the history of the Earth from the first accretion of planetary material (around 4,600 million years ago) until the date of the oldest known rocks (about 3,800 million years ago); no evidence of life

{n: Hall, Radclyffe Hall, Marguerite Radclyffe Hall} English writer whose novel about a lesbian relationship was banned in Britain for many years (1883-1943)

{n: Hegira, Hejira} the flight of Muhammad from Mecca to Medina in 622 which marked the beginning of the Muslim era; the Muslim calendar begins in that year

{n: Henry V} son of Henry IV and King of England from 1413 to 1422; reopened the Hundred Years' War and defeated the French at Agincourt (1387-1422)

{n: Heshvan} the second month of the civil year; the eighth month of the ecclesiastical year in the Jewish calendar (in October and November)

{n: Hindu calendar} the lunisolar calendar governing the religious life of Hindus; an extra month is inserted after every month in which there are two new moons (once every three years)

{n: Hogmanay} New Year's Eve in Scotland

{n: Holocene, Holocene epoch, Recent, Recent epoch} approximately the last 10,000 years

{n: Holy Year} (Roman Catholic Church) a period of remission from sin (usually granted every 25 years)

{n: Hoover, J. Edgar Hoover, John Edgar Hoover} United States lawyer who was director of the FBI for 48 years (1895-1972)

{n: Hughes, Howard Hughes, Howard Robard Hughes} United States industrialist who was an aviator and a film producer; during the last years of his life he was a total recluse (1905-1976)

{n: Hundred Years' War} the series of wars fought intermittently between France and England; 1337-1453

{n: Islamic calendar, Muhammadan calendar, Mohammedan calendar, Moslem calendar, Muslim calendar} the lunar calendar used by Muslims; dates from 622 AD (the year of the Hegira); the beginning of the Muslim year retrogresses through the solar year completing the cycle every 32 years

{n: Isthmian Games} the ancient Panhellenic games held biennially on the Isthmus of Corinth in the first and third years of each Olympiad

{n: Iyar, Iyyar} the eighth month of the civil year; the second month of the ecclesiastical year (in April and May)

{n: January, Jan} the first month of the year; begins 10 days after the winter solstice

{n: Jewish calendar, Hebrew calendar} (Judaism) the calendar used by the Jews; dates from 3761 BC (the assumed date of the creation of the world); a lunar year of 354 days is adjusted to the solar year by periodic leap years

{n: John Paul II, Karol Wojtyla} the first Pope born in Poland; the first Pope not born in Italy in 450 years (born in 1920)

{n: Julian calendar, Old Style calendar} the solar calendar introduced in Rome in 46 b.c. by Julius Caesar and slightly modified by Augustus, establishing the 12-month year of 365 days with each 4th year having 366 days and the months having 31 or 30 days except for February

{n: Jurassic, Jurassic period} from 190 million to 135 million years ago; dinosaurs; conifers

{n: Kara Sea} part of the Arctic Ocean north of Siberia and east of the Barents Sea; icebound most of the year

{n: Kentucky Derby} an annual race for three-year-old horses; held at Churchill Downs in Louisville, Kentucky

{n: Kepler's third law, harmonic law} a law stating that the ratio of the square of the revolutionary period (in years) to the cube of the orbital axis (in astronomical units) is the same for all planets

{n: Kislev, Chislev} the third month of the civil year; the ninth month of the ecclesiastical year in the Jewish calendar (in November and December)

{n: Kwanzaa, Kwanza} a festival featuring African-American culture; celebrated between Christmas and New Year

{n: La Spezia} a port city in Liguria on an arm of the Ligurian Sea; a major seaport and year-round resort

{n: Laptev Sea} part of the Arctic Ocean north of Siberia (between the Taimyr Peninsula and the New Siberian Islands) that is icebound most of the year

{n: Laver, Rod Laver, Rodney George Laver} Australian tennis player who in 1962 was the second man to win the Australian and French and English and United States singles titles in the same year; in 1969 he repeated this feat (born in 1938)

{n: Leakey, Mary Leakey, Mary Douglas Leakey} English paleontologist (the wife of Louis Leakey) who discovered the Zinjanthropus skull that was 1,750,000 years old (1913-1996)

{n: Leiden, Leyden} a city in the western Netherlands; residence of the Pilgrim Fathers for 11 years before they sailed for America in 1620

{n: Lippizan, Lipizzan, Lippizaner} a compact and sturdy saddle horse that is bred and trained in Vienna; smart and docile and excellent for dressage
"a Lippizan is black or brown when born but turns white by the time it is five years old"

{n: Louis XV} grandson of Louis XIV and king of France from 1715 to 1774 who led France into the War of the Austrian Succession and the Seven Years' War (1710-1774)

{n: Louis, Joe Louis, Joseph Louis Barrow} United States prizefighter who was world heavyweight campion for 12 years (1914-1981)

{n: Lower Paleolithic} the oldest part of the Paleolithic Age with the emergence of the hand ax; ended about 120,000 years ago

{n: Ludi Saeculares, secular games} the centennial rites and games of ancient Rome that marked the commencement of a new generation (100 years representing the longest life in a generation); observances may have begun as early as the 5th century BC and lasted well into the Christian era

{n: Lutzen, battle of Lutzen} a battle in the Thirty Years' War (1632); Swedes under Gustavus Adolphus defeated the Holy Roman Empire under Wallenstein; Gustavus Adolphus was killed

{n: Magicicada, genus Magicicada} seventeen-year locust

{n: Maitreya} the Bodhisattva who is to appear as a Buddha 5000 years after the death of Gautama

{n: Mali, Republic of Mali, French Sudan} a landlocked republic in northwestern Africa; achieved independence from France in 1960; Mali was a center of West African civilization for more than 4,000 years

{n: Mantophasmatodea, order mantophasmatodea} an order of insect identified in 2002 in a 45 million year old piece of amber from the Baltic region

{n: Mesasamkranti} Hindu solar holiday at the beginning of the new astrological year when the sun enters the constellation Aries

{n: Mesolithic Age, Mesolithic, Epipaleolithic} middle part of the Stone Age beginning about 15,000 years ago

{n: Mesozoic, Mesozoic era, Age of Reptiles} from 230 million to 63 million years ago

{n: Methuselah} (Old Testament) a patriarch (grandfather of Noah) who is said to have lived 969 years

{n: Middle Paleolithic} the time period of Neanderthal man; ended about 35,000 years BC

{n: Minden, battle of Minden} a battle in the Seven Years' War (1759) in which the English forces and their allies defeated the French

{n: Miocene, Miocene epoch} from 25 million to 13 million years ago; appearance of grazing mammals

{n: Mississippian, Missippian period, Lower Carboniferous, Lower Carboniferous period} from 345 million to 310 million years ago; increase of land areas; primitive ammonites; winged insects

{n: Mononychus olecranus} a turkey-sized long-legged fossil 75 million years old found in the Gobi Desert having birdlike fused wrist bones and keeled breastbone and a long tail resembling a dinosaur's; short forelimbs end in a single claw instead of wings; classification as bird or dinosaur is in dispute

{n: Mount Saint Helens, Mount St. Helens, Mt. St. Helens} an active volcano in the Cascade Range in southwestern Washington; erupted violently in 1980 after 123 years of inactivity

{n: Myxinikela siroka} fossil hagfish of the Pennsylvanian period (c. 300 million years ago) that resembled modern hagfishes

{n: Nemean Games} the ancient Panhellenic games held biennially at Nemea in the second and fourth years of each Olympiad

{n: New Orleans} a port and largest city in Louisiana; located in southeastern Louisiana near the mouth of the Mississippi river; a major center for offshore drilling for oil in the Gulf of Mexico; jazz originated here among black musicians in the late 19th century; Mardi Gras is celebrated here each year

{n: New Year's Day, New Year's, January 1} the first day of the year

{n: New Year's Eve, December 31} the last day of the year

{n: New Year} the calendar year just begun

{n: Nisan, Nissan} the seventh month of the civil year; the first month of the ecclesiastic year (in March and April)

{n: North American Free Trade Agreement, NAFTA} an agreement for free trade between the United States and Canada and Mexico; became effective in 1994 for ten years

{n: Noruz, Nowruz, Nowrooz} (Persian) the new year holiday in Iran and Azerbaijan and Afghanistan and Pakistan and parts of India and among the Kurds; comes at the vernal equinox

{n: Oligocene, Oligocene epoch} from 40 million to 25 million years ago; appearance of sabertoothed cats

{n: Olympiad} one of the four-year intervals between Olympic Games; used to reckon time in ancient Greece for twelve centuries beginning in 776 BC

{n: Olympian Games, Olympic Games} the ancient Panhellenic celebration at Olympia in honor of Zeus; held every 4 years beginning in 776 BC

{n: Olympic Games, Olympics, Olympiad} the modern revival of the ancient games held once every 4 years in a selected country

{n: Omomyid, Omomyid group} extinct tiny nocturnal lower primates that fed on fruit and insects; abundant in North America and Europe 30 to 50 million years ago; probably gave rise to the tarsiers; some authorities consider them ancestral to anthropoids but others consider them only cousins

{n: Ordovician, Ordovician period} from 500 million to 425 million years ago; conodonts and ostracods and algae and seaweeds

{n: Paleocene, Paleocene epoch} from 63 million to 58 million years ago; appearance of birds and earliest mammals

{n: Paleolithic Age, Paleolithic, Palaeolithic} second part of the Stone Age beginning about 750,00 to 500,000 years BC and lasting until the end of the last ice age about 8,500 years BC

{n: Paleozoic, Paleozoic era} from 544 million to about 230 million years ago

{n: Palermo} the capital of Sicily; located in northwestern Sicily; an important port for 3000 years

{n: Parthenon} the main temple of the goddess Athena; built on the acropolis in Athens more than 400 years B.C.; example of Doric architecture

{n: Peace of Westphalia} the peace treaty that ended the Thirty Years' War in 1648

{n: Penelope} (Greek mythology) the wife of Odysseus and a symbol of devotion and fidelity; for 10 years while Odysseus fought the Trojan War she resisted numerous suitors until Odysseus returned and killed them

{n: Pennsylvanian, Pennsylvanian period, Upper Carboniferous, Upper Carboniferous period} from 310 million to 280 million years ago; warm climate; swampy land

{n: Permian, Permian period} from 280 million to 230 million years ago; reptiles

{n: Ph.D., PhD} an American doctorate usually based on at least 3 years graduate study and a dissertation; the highest degree awarded by a graduate school

{n: Phanerozoic, Phanerozoic eon, Phanerozoic aeon} the period from about 5,400 million years ago until the present

{n: Philip VI, Philip of Valois} king of France who founded the Valois dynasty; his dispute with Edward III over his succession led to the Hundred Years' War (1293-1350)

{n: Pinatubo, Mount Pinatubo} a volcano on Luzon northwest of Manila; erupted in 1991 after 600 years of dormancy

{n: Pitt, William Pitt, First Earl of Chatham, Pitt the Elder} English statesman who brought the Seven Years' War to an end (1708-1778)

{n: Plato's Academy} a school established by Plato in ancient Athens
"Plato's Academy continued for several hundred years after Plato died"

{n: Pleistocene, Pleistocene epoch, Glacial epoch} from two million to 11 thousand years ago; extensive glaciation of the northern hemisphere; the time of human evolution

{n: Pliocene, Pliocene epoch} from 13 million to 2 million years ago; growth of mountains; cooling of climate; more and larger mammals

{n: Preakness} an annual race for three-year-old horses; held at Pimlico in Baltimore, Maryland

{n: Precambrian, Precambrian eon, Precambrian aeon, Precambrian period} the eon following the Hadean time and preceding the Phanerozoic eon; from about 3,800 million years ago until 544 million years ago

{n: President of the United States, President, Chief Executive} the office of the United States head of state
"a President is elected every four years"

{n: Proterozoic, Proterozoic eon, Proterozoic aeon} from 2,500 to 544 million years ago; bacteria and fungi; primitive multicellular organisms

{n: Proxima, Proxima Centauri} the nearest star to the sun; distance: 4.3 light years

{n: Pythian Games} the ancient Panhellenic celebration at Delphi held every four years in the third year of the Olympiad in honor of Apollo

{n: Quaternary, Quaternary period, Age of Man} last 2 million years

{n: Rip van Winkle} the title character in a story by Washington Irving about a man who sleeps for 20 years and doesn't recognize the world when he wakens

{n: Rocroi, Battle of Rocroi} a battle in the Thirty Years' War (1643); the French defeated the Spanish invaders

{n: Rosh Hashanah, Rosh Hashana, Rosh Hashonah, Rosh Hashona, Jewish New Year} (Judaism) a solemn Jewish feast day celebrated on the 1st or 1st and 2nd of Tishri; noted for the blowing of the shofar

{n: Rossbach, battle of Rossbach} a battle in the Seven Years' War (1757); Prussian forces under Frederick the Great defeated the armies of France and Austria

{n: Selkirk, Selcraig, Alexander Selkirk, Alexander Selcraig} Scottish sailor who was put ashore on a deserted island off the coast of Chile for five years (providing the basis for Daniel Defoe's novel about Robinson Crusoe) (1676-1721)

{n: Seven Years' War} a war of England and Prussia against France and Austria (1756-1763); Britain and Prussia got the better of it

{n: Shebat, Shevat} the fifth month of the civil year: the eleventh month of the ecclesiastical year in the Jewish calendar (in January and February)

{n: Silurian, Silurian period} from 425 million to 405 million years ago; first air-breathing animals

{n: Sivan, Siwan} the ninth month of the civil year; the third month of the ecclesiastical year in the Jewish calendar (in May and June)

{n: Succoth, Sukkoth, Succos, Feast of Booths, Feast of Tabernacles, Tabernacles} a major Jewish festival beginning on the eve of the 15th of Tishri and commemorating the shelter of the Israelites during their 40 years in the wilderness

{n: Tammuz, Thammuz} the tenth month of the civil year; the fourth month of the ecclesiastic year (in June and July)

{n: Tebet, Tevet} the fourth month of the civil year; the tenth month of the ecclesiastical year (in December and January)

{n: Tertiary, Tertiary period} from 63 million to 2 million years ago

{n: Tet} the New Year in Vietnam; observed for three days after the first full moon after January 20th

{n: Thirty Years' War} a series of conflicts (1618-1648) between Protestants and Catholics staring in Germany and spreading until France and Denmark and Sweden were opposing the Holy Roman Empire and Spain

{n: Times Square} the area of Manhattan around the intersection of Broadway and Seventh Avenue; heart of the New York theater district; site of annual celebration of New Year's

{n: Tishri} the first month of the civil year; the seventh month of the ecclesiastical year in the Jewish calendar (in September and October)

{n: Treasury bond} a debt instrument with maturities of 10 years or longer

{n: Treasury note} securities with maturities of 1 to 10 years; sold for cash or in exchange for maturing issues or at auction

{n: Triassic, Triassic period} from 230 million to 190 million years ago; dinosaurs, marine reptiles; volcanic activity

{n: Trojan War} (Greek mythology) a great war fought between Greece and Troy; the Greeks sailed to Troy to recover Helen of Troy, the beautiful wife of Menelaus who had been abducted by Paris; after ten years the Greeks (via the Trojan Horse) achieved final victory and burned Troy to the ground
"the story of the Trojan War is told in Homer's Iliad"

{n: Underground Railroad, Underground Railway} secret aid to escaping slaves that was provided by abolitionists in the years before the American Civil War

{n: United Self-Defense Force of Colombia, United Self-Defense Group of Colombia, Autodefensas Unidas de Colombia, AUC} a terrorist organization in Colombia formed in 1997 as an umbrella for local and regional paramilitary groups; is financed by earnings from narcotics and serves to protect the economic interests of its members
"the AUC conducted over 800 assassinations in one year"

{n: Upper Paleolithic} the time period during which only modern Homo sapiens was known to have existed; ended about 10,000 years BC

{n: Ussher, James Ussher, Usher, James Usher} Irish prelate who deduced from the Bible that Creation occurred in the year 4004 BC (1581-1656)

{n: Veadar, Adar Sheni} included seven times in every 19 years

{n: Wallenstein, Albrecht Eusebius Wenzel von Wallenstein} Austrian general who fought for the Hapsburgs during the Thirty Years' War (1583-1634)

{n: World Cup} a soccer tournament held every four years between national soccer teams to determine a world champion

{n: Y2K} the year 2000 in the Gregorian calendar

{n: Yosemite, Yosemite Falls} a series of waterfalls in Yosemite National Park in California; is reduced to a trickle for part of each year

{n: abort} the act of terminating a project or procedure before it is completed
"I wasted a year of my life working on an abort"
"he sent a short message requesting an abort due to extreme winds in the area"

{n: absolute magnitude} (astronomy) the magnitude that a star would have if it were viewed from a distance of 10 parsecs (32.62 light years) from the earth

{n: addition, increase, gain} a quantity that is added
"there was an addition to property taxes this year"
"they recorded the cattle's gain in weight over a period of weeks"

{n: addition} the act of adding one thing to another
"the addition of flowers created a pleasing effect"
"the addition of a leap day every four years"
<-> subtraction

{n: age, eld} a time in life (usually defined in years) at which some particular qualification or power arises
"she was now of school age"
"tall for his eld"

{n: all-rounder, all arounder} a versatile person who is expert at many things
"she's the best all-rounder they've seen in years"

{n: almanac, farmer's calendar} an annual publication including weather forecasts and other miscellaneous information arranged according to the calendar of a given year

{n: almanac} an annual publication containing tabular information in a particular field or fields arranged according to the calendar of a given year

{n: amortization, amortisation} the reduction of the value of an asset by prorating its cost over a period of years

{n: ancient pine, Pinus longaeva} small slow-growing pine of western United States similar to the bristlecone pine; chocolate brown bark in plates and short needles in bunches of 5; crown conic but becoming rough and twisted; oldest plant in the world growing to 5000 years in cold semidesert mountain tops

{n: annals, chronological record} a chronological account of events in successive years

{n: anniversary, day of remembrance} the date on which an event occurred in some previous year (or the celebration of it)

{n: annual, yearly, yearbook} a reference book that is published regularly once every year

{n: annual} a plant that completes its entire life cycle within the space of a year

{n: annum} (Latin) year
"per annum"

{n: anomalistic year} time of the earth's revolution from perihelion to perihelion again; 365 days and 6 hr and 13 min and 53.1 sec

{n: appanage, apanage} any customary and rightful perquisite appropriate to your station in life
"for thousands of years the chair was an appanage of state and dignity rather than an article of ordinary use"

{n: associate degree, associate} a degree granted by a two-year college on successful completion of the undergraduates course of studies

{n: attack, attempt} the act of attacking
"attacks on women increased last year"
"they made an attempt on his life"

{n: australopithecine} any of several extinct humanlike bipedal primates with relatively small brains of the genus Australopithecus; from 1 to 4 million years ago

{n: baby, babe, infant} a very young child (birth to 1 year) who has not yet begun to walk or talk
"isn't she too young to have a baby?"

{n: balance of payments, balance of international payments} a system of recording all of a country's economic transactions with the rest of the world over a period of one year
"a favorable balance of payments exists when more payments are coming in than going out"

{n: big-bang theory, big bang theory} (cosmology) the theory that the universe originated 20 billion years ago from the cataclysmic explosion of a small mass of matter at extremely high density and temperature

{n: bimillennium, bimillenary} a span of 2000 years

{n: bimonthly} a periodical that is published twice a month or every two months (either 24 or 6 issues per year)

{n: birthrate, birth rate, fertility, fertility rate, natality} the ratio of live births in an area to the population of that area; expressed per 1000 population per year

{n: biweekly} a periodical that is published twice a week or every two weeks (either 104 or 26 issues per year)

{n: branchlet, twig, sprig} a small branch or division of a branch (especially a terminal division); usually applied to branches of the current or preceding year

{n: bristlecone pine, Rocky Mountain bristlecone pine, Pinus aristata} small slow-growing upland pine of western United States (Rocky Mountains) having dense branches with fissured rust-brown bark and short needles in bunches of 5 and thorn-tipped cone scales; among the oldest living things some over 4500 years old

{n: brocket} male red deer in its second year

{n: budget} a sum of money allocated for a particular purpose
"the laboratory runs on a budget of a million a year"

{n: business index} a statistical compilation that provides a context for economic or financial conditions
"this business index is computed relative to the base year of 1995"

{n: by-catch, bycatch} unwanted marine creatures that are caught in the nets while fishing for another species
"thousands of dolphins and porpoises and whales are killed as part of the by-catch each year"

{n: calendar month, month} one of the twelve divisions of the calendar year
"he paid the bill last month"

{n: calendar year, civil year} the year (reckoned from January 1 to December 31) according to Gregorian calendar

{n: calendar} a system of timekeeping that defines the beginning and length and divisions of the year

{n: calendar} a tabular array of the days (usually for one year)

{n: centenarian} someone who is at least 100 years old

{n: century} a period of 100 years

{n: championship, title} the status of being a champion
"he held the title for two years"

{n: change, alteration, modification} an event that occurs when something passes from one state or phase to another
"the change was intended to increase sales"
"this storm is certainly a change for the worse"
"the neighborhood had undergone few modifications since his last visit years ago"

{n: chebab} a Palestinian juvenile 10-15 years old who fights against the Israelis

{n: chronological age} age measured by the time (years and months) that something or someone has existed
"his chronological age was 71 years"

{n: church calendar, ecclesiastical calendar} a calendar of the Christian year indicating the dates of fasts and festivals

{n: church year, Christian year} the year in the ecclesiastical calendar; especially feast days and special seasons

{n: class, division} a league ranked by quality
"he played baseball in class D for two years"
"Princeton is in the NCAA Division 1-AA"

{n: class, year} a body of students who graduate together
"the class of '97"
"she was in my year at Hoehandle High"

{n: clutch} a coupling that connects or disconnects driving and driven parts of a driving mechanism
"this year's model has an improved clutch"

{n: cockerel} a young domestic cock; not older than one year

{n: common year, 365 days} a year that is not a leap year

{n: constitution, establishment, formation, organization, organisation} the act of forming something
"the constitution of a PTA group last year"
"it was the establishment of his reputation"
"he still remembers the organization of the club"

{n: credence, acceptance} the mental attitude that something is believable and should be accepted as true
"he gave credence to the gossip"
"acceptance of Newtonian mechanics was unquestioned for 200 years"

{n: crime rate} the ratio of crimes in an area to the population of that area; expressed per 1000 population per year

{n: crunch} a critical situation that arises because of a shortage (as a shortage of time or money or resources)
"an end-of-the year crunch"
"a financial crunch"

{n: custom} habitual patronage
"I have given this tailor my custom for many years"

{n: cycle, oscillation} a single complete execution of a periodically repeated phenomenon
"a year constitutes a cycle of the seasons"

{n: date} the particular day, month, or year (usually according to the Gregorian calendar) that an event occurred
"he tried to memorizes all the dates for his history class"

{n: days, years} the time during which someone's life continues
"the monarch's last days"
"in his final years"

{n: dead metaphor, frozen metaphor} a metaphor that has occurred so often that it has become a new meaning of the expression (e.g., `he is a snake' may once have been a metaphor but after years of use it has died and become a new sense of the word `snake')

{n: deathrate, death rate, mortality, mortality rate, fatality rate} the ratio of deaths in an area to the population of that area; expressed per 1000 per year

{n: decade, decennary, decennium} a period of 10 years

{n: declaration of estimated tax, estimated tax return} return required of a taxpayer whose tax withheld from income does not meet the tax liability for the year

{n: deep freeze} temporary inactivity or suspension
"the legislation has now been revived after ten years in the deep freeze"

{n: deficit} an excess of liabilities over assets (usually over a certain period)
"last year there was a serious budgetary deficit"

{n: development, evolution} a process in which something passes by degrees to a different stage (especially a more advanced or mature stage)
"the development of his ideas took many years"
"the evolution of Greek civilization"
"the slow development of her skill as a writer"
<-> devolution

{n: diamond jubilee} an anniversary celebrating the passage of 60 years

{n: dicamptodon, dicamptodontid} salamanders found near cold streams throughout the year

{n: distal muscular dystrophy} a form of muscular dystrophy that sets in between 40 and 60 years of age and is characterized by weakness and wasting of the muscles of the hands and forearms and lower legs; inheritance is autosomal dominant

{n: distance} a remote point in time
"if that happens it will be at some distance in the future"
"at a distance of ten years he had forgotten many of the details"

{n: drop, drib, driblet} a small indefinite quantity (especially of a liquid)
"he had a drop too much to drink"
"a drop of each sample was analyzed"
"there is not a drop of pity in that man"
"years afterward, they would pay the blood-money, driblet by driblet"--Kipling

{n: drought, drouth} a prolonged shortage
"when England defeated Pakistan it ended a ten-year drought"

{n: dust storm, duster, sandstorm, sirocco} a windstorm that lifts up clouds of dust or sand
"it was the kind of duster not experienced in years"

{n: dysthymia, dysthymic depression} mild chronic depression
"I thought she had just been in a bad mood for thirty years, but the doctor called it dysthymia"

{n: eleven-plus, 11-plus} (formerly in England) an examination taken by 11 and 12 year old students to select suitable candidates for grammar school

{n: end, ending} the point in time at which something ends
"the end of the year"
"the ending of warranty period"
<-> beginning, middle

{n: ephemeris} an annual publication containing astronomical tables that give the positions of the celestial bodies throughout the year
"today computers calculate the ephemerides"

{n: equinox} either of two times of the year when the sun crosses the plane of the earth's equator and day and night are of equal length

{n: etiolation} a pale and sickly appearance
"his etiolation signaled years in prison"

{n: evergreen, evergreen plant} a plant having foliage that persists and remains green throughout the year
<-> deciduous plant

{n: failure} lack of success
"he felt that his entire life had been a failure"
"that year there was a crop failure"
<-> success

{n: field, field of operations, theater, theater of operations, theatre, theatre of operations} a region in which active military operations are in progress
"the army was in the field awaiting action"
"he served in the Vietnam theater for three years"

{n: film festival} a cinematic festival that features films (usually films produced during the past year)

{n: fiscal year, financial year} any accounting period of 12 months

{n: foe, enemy} a personal enemy
"they had been political foes for years"
<-> friend

{n: forwardness} an advanced stage
"the forwardness of the harvest this year"
"the arts are in no kind of forwardness in this matter"

{n: freshman, fresher} a first-year undergraduate

{n: fuchsia, magenta} a dark purple-red; the dye was discovered in 1859, the year of the battle of Magenta

{n: genus Protoavis} extinct primitive birds of the Triassic period; 70 million years before archaeopteryx

{n: golden years} the time of life after retirement from active work

{n: graduating class} the body of students who graduate together this year

{n: great year, Platonic year} time required for one complete cycle of the precession of the equinoxes, about 25,800 years

{n: gross domestic product, GDP} measure of the United States economy adopted in 1991; the total market values of goods and services by produced by workers and capital within the United States borders during a given period (usually 1 year)

{n: groundwork} preliminary preparation as a basis or foundation
"we are prepared today because of groundwork that was done ten years ago"

{n: grunt} an unskilled or low-ranking soldier or other worker
"infantrymen in Vietnam were called grunts"
"he went from grunt to chairman in six years"

{n: half-century} a period of 50 years

{n: hibernation} the act of retiring into inactivity
"he emerged from his hibernation to make his first appearance in several years"

{n: hog, hogget, hogg} a sheep up to the age of one year; one yet to be sheared

{n: holiday} a day on which work is suspended by law or custom
"no mail is delivered on federal holidays"
"it's a good thing that New Year's was a holiday because everyone had a hangover"

{n: indiction} a 15-year cycle used as a chronological unit in ancient Rome and adopted in some medieval kingdoms

{n: infant deathrate, infant mortality, infant mortality rate} the death rate during the first year of life

{n: inspiration, brainchild} a product of your creative thinking and work
"he had little respect for the inspirations of other artists"
"after years of work his brainchild was a tangible reality"

{n: junior college} a college that offers only the first two years terminating in an associate degree

{n: junior} a third-year undergraduate

{n: kuru} a progressive disease of the central nervous system marked by increasing lack of coordination and advancing to paralysis and death within a year of the appearance of symptoms; thought to have been transmitted by cannibalistic consumption of diseased brain tissue since the disease virtually disappeared when cannibalism was abandoned

{n: leap day, bissextile day, February 29} the name of the day that is added during a leap year

{n: leap year, intercalary year, 366 days, bissextile year} in the Gregorian calendar: any year divisible by 4 except centenary years not divisible by 400

{n: leveret} a young hare especially one in its first year

{n: light year, light-year} the distance that light travels in a vacuum in 1 year; 5.88 trillion miles or 9.46 trillion kilometers

{n: little leaguer} a player between 8 and 12 years of age who is a member of a little-league team

{n: little league} a commercially sponsored baseball league for players between 8 and 12 years of age

{n: lockstep} a standard procedure that is followed mindlessly
"the union's support had been in lockstep for years"

{n: long time, age, years} a prolonged period of time
"we've known each other for ages"
"I haven't been there for years and years"

{n: loss, red ink, red} the amount by which the cost of a business exceeds its revenue
"the company operated at a loss last year"
"the company operated in the red last year"
<-> gain

{n: lunar year} a period of 12 lunar months

{n: lustrum} a ceremonial purification of the Roman population every five years following the census

{n: lustrum} a period of five years

{n: magazine, mag} a periodic publication containing pictures and stories and articles of interest to those who purchase it or subscribe to it
"it takes several years before a magazine starts to break even or make money"

{n: meeting, group meeting} a formally arranged gathering
"next year the meeting will be in Chicago"
"the meeting elected a chairperson"

{n: menorrhea, menstrual blood, menstrual flow} flow of blood from the uterus; occurs at roughly monthly intervals during a woman's reproductive years

{n: middle age} the time of life between youth and old age (e.g., between 40 and 60 years of age)

{n: middle-aged man} a man who is roughly between 45 and 65 years old

{n: migrator} an animal (especially birds and fish) that travels between different habitats at particular times of the year

{n: millenary} a sum or aggregate of one thousand (especially one thousand years)

{n: millennium, millenary} a span of 1000 years

{n: millennium} (New Testament) in Revelations it is foretold that those faithful to Jesus will reign with Jesus over the earth for a thousand years; the meaning of these words have been much debated; some denominations (e.g. Jehovah's Witnesses) expect it to be a thousand years of justice and peace and happiness

{n: minyan} the quorum required by Jewish law to be present for public worship (at least ten males over thirteen years of age)

{n: missal} (Roman Catholic Church) a book containing all the prayers and responses needed to celebrate Mass throughout the year

{n: modification} slightly modified copy; not an exact copy
"a modification of last year's model"

{n: monthly} a periodical that is published every month (or 12 issues per year)

{n: moralization, moralisation} the act of making moral (or more moral)
"for years she worked toward the moralization of English literature"

{n: movable feast, moveable feast} a religious holiday that falls on different dates in different years

{n: municipal note} a municipal debt instrument with a maturity of less than 2 years

{n: musical chairs} a rearrangement that has no practical effect or significance
"the company is looking for stability after years of musical chairs with directors"
"shareholders don't want the company playing musical chairs with their investment"

{n: normal school, teachers college} a two-year school for training elementary teachers

{n: novillada} a bullfight in which the bulls are less than four years old

{n: novillero} a bullfighter who is required to fight bulls less than four years of age

{n: obscurity} an obscure and unimportant standing; not well known
"he worked in obscurity for many years"
<-> prominence

{n: off year} a year in which no major political elections are held

{n: off year} a year in which productivity is low or inferior

{n: office, power} (of a government or government official) holding an office means being in power
"being in office already gives a candidate a great advantage"
"during his first year in office"
"during his first year in power"
"the power of the president"

{n: officeholder, officer} someone who is appointed or elected to an office and who holds a position of trust
"he is an officer of the court"
"the club elected its officers for the coming year"

{n: old age, years, age, eld, geezerhood} a late time of life
"old age is not for sissies"
"he's showing his years"
"age hasn't slowed him down at all"
"a beard white with eld"
"on the brink of geezerhood"

{n: oppression} the state of being kept down by unjust use of force or authority: "after years of oppression they finally revolted"

{n: organization expense} the cost (over a period of five years) of organizing a new corporation or partnership

{n: osprey, fish hawk, fish eagle, sea eagle, Pandion haliaetus} large harmless hawk found worldwide that feeds on fish and builds a bulky nest often occupied for years

{n: overabundance, overmuch, overmuchness, superabundance} a quantity that is more than what is appropriate
"four-year-olds have an overabundance of energy"
"we received an inundation of email"

{n: overcup oak, Quercus lyrata} medium-large deciduous timber tree of central and southern United States; acorns deeply immersed in the cup and mature in first year

{n: painting} creating a picture with paints
"he studied painting and sculpture for many years"

{n: parr} a young salmon up to 2 years old

{n: parsec, secpar} a unit of astronomical length based on the distance from Earth at which stellar parallax is 1 second of arc; equivalent to 3.262 light years

{n: parts} the local environment
"he hasn't been seen around these parts in years"

{n: pay dirt} a profitable success
"the inventor worked for years before hitting pay dirt"

{n: perennation} the process of living through a number of years (as a perennial plant)

{n: perpetual calendar} a chart or mechanical device that indicates the days of the week corresponding to any given date over a long period of years

{n: phoenix} a legendary Arabian bird said to periodically burn itself to death and emerge from the ashes as a new phoenix; according to most versions only one phoenix lived at a time and it renewed itself every 500 years

{n: picking, pick} the quantity of a crop that is harvested
"he sent the first picking of berries to the market"
"it was the biggest peach pick in years"

{n: plantar reflex} flexion of the toes when the sole of the foot is stroked firmly on the outer side from the heel to the front in persons over the age of 2 years; under 2 years the results should be extension of the toes (Babinski reflex)

{n: prepuberty} a period of two years immediately prior to the onset of puberty when growth and changes leading to sexual maturity occur

{n: preteen, preteenager} a preadolescent boy or girl (usually between 9 and 12 years of age)
"little league is intended for the preteens"

{n: pricket} male deer in his second year

{n: prison term, sentence, time} the period of time a prisoner is imprisoned
"he served a prison term of 15 months"
"his sentence was 5 to 10 years"
"he is doing time in the county jail"

{n: product, production} an artifact that has been created by someone or some process
"they improve their product every year"
"they export most of their agricultural production"

{n: promenade, prom} a formal ball held for a school class toward the end of the academic year

{n: pullet} young hen usually less than a year old

{n: quadrennium} a period of four years

{n: quarter-century} a period of 25 years

{n: quarterly} a periodical that is published every quarter (or four issues per year)

{n: quarter} a fourth part of a year; three months
"unemployment fell during the last quarter"

{n: quarter} one of four periods into which the school year is divided
"the fall quarter ends at Christmas"

{n: quinquennium} a period of five years

{n: radiocarbon dating, carbon dating, carbon-14 dating} a chemical analysis used to determine the age of organic materials based on their content of the radioisotope carbon-14; believed to be reliable up to 40,000 years

{n: realization, realisation, fruition} something that is made real or concrete
"the victory was the realization of a whole year's work"

{n: recession} the state of the economy declines; a widespread decline in the GDP and employment and trade lasting from six months to a year

{n: record} an extreme attainment; the best (or worst) performance ever attested (as in a sport)
"he tied the Olympic record"
"coffee production last year broke all previous records"
"Chicago set the homicide record"

{n: red oak} any of numerous American oaks having 4 stamens in each floret, acorns requiring two years to mature and leaf veins usually extending beyond the leaf margin to form points or bristles

{n: relief} aid for the aged or indigent or handicapped
"he has been on relief for many years"

{n: repercussion, reverberation} a remote or indirect consequence of some action
"his declaration had unforeseen repercussions"
"reverberations of the market crash were felt years later"

{n: reserve clause} a clause that used to be part of the contract with a professional athlete extending the contract for a year beyond its expiration
"the reserve clause was used to bind players to a particular ball club"

{n: resolution} a decision to do something or to behave in a certain manner
"he always wrote down his New Year's resolutions"

{n: retinoblastoma} malignant ocular tumor of retinal cells; usually occurs before the third year of life; composed of primitive small round retinal cells

{n: roller coaster} anything characterized by abrupt and extreme changes (especially up and down)
"the economy has been on a roller coaster all year"

{n: rotation, revolution, gyration} a single complete turn (axial or orbital)
"the plane made three rotations before it crashed"
"the revolution of the earth about the sun takes one year"

{n: row} a continuous chronological succession without an interruption
"they won the championship three years in a row"

{n: rubidium-strontium dating} geological dating based on the proportions of radioactive rubidium into its decay product strontium; radioactive rubidium has a half-life of 47,000,000,000 years

{n: sabbatical year} a sabbatical leave lasting one year

{n: sabbatical, sabbatical leave} a leave usually taken every seventh year

{n: school year, academic year} the period of time each year when the school is open and people are studying

{n: season, time of year} one of the natural periods into which the year is divided by the equinoxes and solstices or atmospheric conditions
"the regular sequence of the seasons"

{n: seasonal adjustment} a statistical adjustment made to accommodate predictable fluctuations as a function of the season of the year
"seasonal adjustments for housing starts must be made in mid-winter"

{n: season} a period of the year marked by special events or activities in some field
"he celebrated his 10th season with the ballet company"
"she always looked forward to the avocado season"

{n: semester} half a year; a period of 6 months

{n: semester} one of two divisions of an academic year

{n: semimonthly} a periodical that is published twice each month (or 24 issues per year)

{n: semiweekly} a periodical that is published twice each week (or 104 issues per year)

{n: senior} an undergraduate student during the year preceding graduation

{n: service stripe, hashmark, hash mark} an insignia worn to indicate years of service

{n: service} employment in or work for another
"he retired after 30 years of service"

{n: seventeen-year locust, periodical cicada, Magicicada septendecim} North American cicada; appears in great numbers at infrequent intervals because the nymphs take 13 to 17 years to mature

{n: severe combined immunodeficiency, severe combined immunodeficiency disease, SCID} a congenital disease affecting T cells that can result from a mutation in any one of several different genes; children with it are susceptible to infectious disease; if untreated it is lethal within the first year or two of life

{n: sexual immorality} the evil ascribed to sexual acts that violate social conventions
"sexual immorality is the major reason for last year's record number of abortions"

{n: shooting preserve} a preserve on which hunting is permitted during certain months of the year

{n: sidereal year} the time for the earth to make one complete revolution around the sun, relative to the fixed stars

{n: sigeh} a Shiite tradition of temporary marriage permitted in Iran that allows a couple to specify the terms of their relationship; can last from a few minutes to 99 years
"sigeh legally wraps premarital sex in an Islamic cloak"

{n: silver jubilee} an anniversary celebrating the passage of 25 years

{n: sixth form} students preparing for their A levels in their final two years of secondary education

{n: solar month} one-twelfth of a solar or tropical year

{n: solar year, tropical year, astronomical year, equinoctial year} the time for the earth to make one revolution around the sun, measured between two vernal equinoxes

{n: solferino, purplish pink} a pink dye that was discovered in 1859, the year a battle was fought at Solferino

{n: solstice} either of the two times of the year when the sun is at its greatest distance from the celestial equator

{n: sophomore class} the second class in a four-year college or high school

{n: sophomore, soph} a second-year undergraduate

{n: splitsville} separation or breakup or divorce
"after 15 years together they are headed for splitsville"

{n: spring, springtime} the season of growth
"the emerging buds were a sure sign of spring"
"he will hold office until the spring of next year"

{n: staggered board of directors} a board of directors a portion of whose members are elected each year instead of all members being elected annually

{n: stagnation, stagnancy, doldrums} a state of inactivity (in business or art etc)
"economic growth of less than 1% per year is considered to be economic stagnation"

{n: stock certificate, stock} a certificate documenting the shareholder's ownership in the corporation
"the value of his stocks doubled during the past year"

{n: straight-line method, straight-line method of depreciation} (accounting) a method of calculating depreciation by taking an equal amount of the asset's cost as an expense for each year of the asset's useful life

{n: striper} a serviceman who wears stripes on the uniform to indicate rank or years of service
"he's a four-striper"

{n: subacute sclerosing panencephalitis, SSPE, inclusion body encephalitis, subacute inclusion body encephalitis, sclerosing leukoencephalitis, subacute sclerosing leukoencephalitis, Bosin's disease, Dawson's encephalitis, Van Bogaert encephalitis} a rare chronic progressive encephalitis caused by the measles virus and occurring primarily in children and young adults; death usually occurs within three years; characterized by primary measles infection before the age of two years

{n: summer, summertime} the warmest season of the year; in the northern hemisphere it extends from the summer solstice to the autumnal equinox
"they spent a lazy summer at the shore"

{n: suspense} an uncertain cognitive state
"the matter remained in suspense for several years"

{n: teg} two-year-old sheep

{n: three-year-old horse, three year old} a racehorse that is three years old

{n: time period, period of time, period} an amount of time
"a time period of 30 years"
"hastened the period of time of his recovery"
"Picasso's blue period"

{n: time} an indefinite period (usually marked by specific attributes or activities)
"he waited a long time"
"the time of year for planting"
"he was a great actor is his time"

{n: topic, subject, issue, matter} some situation or event that is thought about

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